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Published on Nov View 82 Download 0. Copyright by the Regents of the University of MinnesotaAll rights reserved.

No part of this publication may be reproduced, stored in a retrieval system, or transmitted, in any form mzlcolm by any means, elec-tronic, mechanical, photocopying, recording, or otherwise, without the prior xe permission of the publisher.

Includes bibliographical references and index. Africa, Portuguese-speakingHistoryAutonomy and independence movements. Africa, Portuguese-speakingPolitics and government. GlobalizationPolitical aspectsAfrica, Portuguese- speaking. GlobalizationSocial aspectsAfrica, Portuguese- speaking. Cesria vora and the Globalization of Cape Verdean Music There are countless individuals to whom I remain thankful. In particu-lar, I wish to highlight several friends and colleagues who have played a key role in sparking and nurturing my interest toward Africa, as well as my career as a whole.

In Berkeley during the late s Reonvenes Joo Pombo and Greg Mullins inspired me with their life stories about Angola and Kenya along with their passion for African music. In Inocncia Mata pro-vided me with an essential literaryhistorical framework in her phenom-enal introductory course on Lusophone Rreinvenes at the University of Lisbon.

Russell Hamilton has been a steadfast mentor and seasoned guide to the universe of Africa. Charlie Sugnet continues to amaze me with his passion-ately learned and lived knowledge of all things African.

Fernando Arenas-Lusophone Africa_ Beyond Independence -Univ of Minnesota Press (2011)

Ana Paula Ferreira has been an extraordinary interlocutorequally generous and inspiring. Barbara Weissberger has been a model intellectual, colleague, and friend. Throughout my early and mid-career as a faculty member at the Univer-sity of Minnesota, Connie Sullivan was an unwavering mentor and a pri-mary source of moral support. Joanna OConnells intellectual generosity and friendship are cherished.

Carol Klees academic citizenship and warm collegiality are indeed exemplary. I presented parts of this book to audiences at various universities between and The questions and comments raised by students and colleagues were of tremendous value. I thank the following individuals xii Acknowledgmentsfor their receptivity and generosity: I warmly acknowledge my colleagues, graduate and undergraduate stu-dents, and staff members in the Department of Spanish and Portuguese Studies at the University of Minnesota for their continued support and inspiration.

I would also like to thank colleagues, students, and staff mem-bers in the Department of Romance Languages and Literatures at Har-vard University, where I was a visiting professor infor their warm hospitality and for making my experience there one of the most exciting and stimulating of my career. Without Manuels knowledge of Kriolu language and culture I could not have written the chapter on Cape Verdean music.

Manning Marable – Malcolm X – Uma Vida de

My deep gratitude also goes to Richard Morrison and Adam Brunner at the University of Minnesota Press for their professionalism and piv-otal guidance throughout the process of completing the manuscript.

The insightful comments of the anonymous reviewers were most valuable in making the manuscript more solid and nuanced. Kate Clements excelled in her technical support with the filmic quotations. Finally, without the love and steady life foundation provided by friends and family near and far, the work involved in writing this book would have been less sweet and more onerous.

A todos um enorme abrao! This page intentionally left blank xvl u s o p h o n malolm a f r i c a: Beyond Independence offers a multidisciplinary approach drawing from the fields of popular music, film, literature, cultural history, geopolitics, and critical theory.

It provides a con-ceptual framework through which to understand recent cultural and his-torical developments in Portuguese-speaking Africa as a whole and in its parts: Furthermore, it explores the relationship of Lusophone Africa to a larger African context, the evolving relationship with Portugal its for-mer colonial power as well as with its sister country Maclolm, in addition to the location of Portuguese-speaking Africa on the map of contemporary global forces.

The multi-disciplinary framework of this book allows for various points of entry reinvened these complex discursive and conceptual fields, which is reflected by chapters dealing with the intersection between Lusophone Africa, post-colonialism, and globalization; Lusophone transatlantic cultural history; Cape Verdean popular music; contemporary Lusophone Viea cinema; and the fiction of postcivil war Angola. While chapters are thematically and conceptually intertwined, they may also be read autonomously.

Beyond Independence, despite being a straightforward iteration of a historical reality and diachronic sequence of political processes following the experience of colonialism, is also a rhe-torical strategy to problematize the experience of independence as histori-cal telos, while calling attention to the exhaustion of the utopian fervor associated with the struggles for independence conducted by the national liberation movements throughout Portuguese-speaking Africa during the s and s and the vision reijvenes a new egalitarian society.

Instead, the sociopolitical and historical scenario that predominates in these coun-tries under the aegis of contemporary globalization is reivenes with ambi-guity. Such ambiguity is illustrated by a series of phenomena associated with the notion of postcolonialism that varyingly affect Mozambique, Guinea-Bissau, Cape Verde, So Tom and Prncipe, and Angola that can simultaneously coexist with dynamics akin to what various malcol, have described as neocolonialism, recolonization, internal colonialism, eco-nomic dependency, as well as the coloniality of power.

These terms malcokm be discussed throughout this study as they impinge on the various countries in question and as they are reflected in their cultural production. The present Introduction discusses the historical, conceptual, and geo-political foundations of postcolonialism and globalization, while situating Africa as well as Portuguese-speaking Africa within such foundations.

At the same time, it analyzes the shifting conceptual interconnectedness and tensions between the discursive fields of globalization and postcolonialism, highlighting the distinctiveness, complementarity, and even limitations of both fields as hermeneutical tools for the study of Africa.

Subsequently, the Introduction turns its attention toward the conceptual debates sur-rounding the terms postcolonialism and globalization, while under-scoring the important contribution of African and Africanist intellectuals to these debates. Additionally, it comments on examples taken from the realms of film and literature that symbolically and narratively transfigure the nexus between postcolonialism and globalization. Finally, it offers an account of the contemporary geopolitical contours of the five individual Portuguese-speaking African states that are the object umx this study, point-ing out their specificities in relationship to each other, to their particular subregions, and to the African continent as a whole.

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Their postindependence processes took place amid the Cold Introduction xviiWar under the mantle of MarxistLeninist parties who were, for the most part, the rdinvenes in the liberation struggles. Major ima transfor-mations since the s, namely, the end of the Cold War and the con-solidation of global capitalism, meant a paradigm shift jalcolm single-party centralized states, which dominated the years immediately following inde-pendence, toward market-oriented multiparty states.

In Mozambique and Angola this critical shift took place under the shadow of devastating civil wars that reinvenew partly driven by geopolitical and socioeconomic cir-cumstances generally linked to the Cold War and reinvenez Apartheid regime in South Africa as well as internal factors related to ethnic and regional malcol.

Since the end of the civil wars in and respectivelyMozambique and Angola have become relatively stable and are experienc-ing important sociopolitical changes and significant economic growth.

Angola, in particular, is now a major economic and geopolitical player in sub-Saharan Africa. Political and economic developments malcollm the world stage mentioned so far were key factors in the emergence and consolidation in recent decades of contemporary globalization in all of its manifold intersecting dimen-sions, be they cultural, economic, technological, informational, com-municational, or bio political.

Dr vastly increased scope and further intensification of the phenom-ena related to globalization during the late twentieth and early twenty-first centuries are in part the culmination of a process that started in the s when both Portugal and Spain took to the seas, thus inaugurating the first major stage of globalization, which in truth signified the rise of Western-ization, early capitalism, and imperialism, in tandem with the transatlantic slave tradeall key interrelated factors in the rise of modernity.

As stated eloquently by Paul Tiyambe Zeleza, Africa has been an integral part of these processes, central to the construction of the modern world in all its ramificationseconomic, political, cultural, and discursiveover the last half millennium 4.

Africa, according to Achille Mbembe, made its forced ve into reinvenee emerging Western modernity through colonialism and the xviii Introductionslave trade a, 13but as Anthony Appiah reminds us, this turn ma,colm events occurred over time in a differentiated manner varying from region to region Thus, the historicity of Africa cannot be isolated from the rest of the world and the processes of globalization over time.

By the same token, it cannot be seen homogeneously, as these processes have varied from country to country and region malcokm region, in accordance with their differentiated colonial experiences over time and space and, since inde-pendence, with contrasting levels of economic potential or socioeconomic development.

The Place of Africa in the Conceptual Parameters of Globalization and PostcolonialismAs is widely known, contemporary globalization is characterized by an intensified timespace compression Harvey, ; Bauman, re -sulting from the extraordinary advances in the realms of information tech-nology, mass media, telecommunications, and transportation, which have been revolutionizing the planetary existence in economic, social, cultural, and political terms.

Yet the widely celebrated reinvwnes leap in timespace compression that would characterize globalization is experienced in a seg-mented and highly differentiated fashion in accordance with social class and geographical location on national, regional, and global scales.

Fred-erick Cooper, for instance, emphasizes the limits of interconnection as far as Africa is concerned, arguing that there are whole areas of the conti-nent where capital simply cannot go and where the structures necessary for interconnection are lacking The profound socioeconomic segmentation at work throughout sub-Saharan Africa is illustrated by the fact that national elites are those who tend to be active participants in and beneficiaries of the extraordinary material and technological advances of globalization, while most of the population struggles to survive, oftentimes lacking the most basic of rights such as sanitation, malcolj, adequate food, or decent housing.

In fact, the unequal geography of globaliza-tion and its historical links with European colonialism and the process of decolonization, as described by Ali Behdad 77have been vira object of scrutiny for some time by critics inside and outside the realm of post-colonial studies.

Some critics view contemporary globalization as the continued spread of imperialism McClintock, ; Williams and Chrisman, ; Amin,or similarly as the perpetuation of the cultural and ideological rem-nants of European colonialist rule, now replicated by the United States Introduction xix Said, Other related views emphasize the consolidation of capi-talism on a worldwide scale Wallerstein, and the United States as the hegemonic nation-state Gilpin, Boaventura de Sousa Santos argues that the dominant characteristics of globalization that are reinvenrs celebrated in the vast literature on the subject are reflective uuma what he calls hegemonic globalization, as opposed to counter-hegemonic global-ization, which would reflect the practice and discourse on the part of pro-gressive coalitions of classes and subordinate groups and their allies These two poles are encapsulated by the resignified metaphor-concept of Empire, as posited by Michael Hardt and Antonio Negriwhereby they argue that from the end of modern colonialisms new forms of decen-tered and deterritorialized rule and sovereignty have emerged, operating on a global scale that simultaneously bears a destructive as well as eman-cipatory potential.

Parag Khanna argues that contemporary glo-balization has brought about a reconfiguration of geopolitical forces that is enabling the emergence of a vast spectrum of dd world nations reinfenes are vica major economic and political power brokers who will impact the future direction of the world.

What is most striking about the profuse literature that critically ana-lyzes, distills, and interprets the processes of globalization is the scant attention given to Africa. Even in some of the most elaborate theorizations on globalization produced in the West, such as Hardt and Negris, or in some of the most prescient such as Parag Khannas, Africa is barely men-tioned.

Consequently, the reification of Africa particularly sub-Saharan or black Africa in most totalizing accounts of globalization serves to further reinforce the constellation of negative interpretations of the continent that have circulated amply in the West over time as highlighted by Mbembe, a, 1; and Ferguson 8.

In his trenchant and timely study on Africa and globalization Global Shadows []James Ferguson points out that when Africa is mentioned in most accounts on globalization not only ivda it usually described as a continent existing on the margins but, even more important, Africa simply does not neatly fit the descriptions advanced in the otherwise abundant critical literature on globalization.


We shall return to this question shortly. Postcolonialism, a field of knowledge encompassing the ensemble of socioeconomic, geopolitical, and cultural consequences of colonialism and a historicized referent that signals the aftermath of colonialism, most particularly, late European colonialism in Africa, Asia, the Pacific, and the Amlcolm East, is evidently coimplicated with the processes of contemporary xx Introductionglobalization.

Nonetheless, as a key critical concept within the humanities since the emergence of the discursive reinvvenes of postcolonial viad in the Anglophone academy in the s, the term postcolonial has generated much debate.

In fact, as Timothy Brennan asserts, postcolonial studies is far from a unified ideological field The primary conceptual debate has centered on the ambiguity of the post prefix. Some of the key epistemological underpinnings of the field of post-colonial studies are found in the intellectual contribution of African or Pan-African thinkers such as Frantz Fanon ;Amlcar CabralAlbert Memmi ;among others, which provided a fundamental as well as multidimensional and incisive critiques of colonial-ism during its final years centered largely on the African experience.

For instance, Fanons devastating analysis of race relations and racism in colo-nial society, which remains relevant in postcolonial times; Cabrals reflec-tion on the pivotal relation between economic and cultural forces in the construction of a postindependence national society in the heat of the lib-eration struggles in Guinea-Bissau; or Memmis earlier analysisexces-sively Manichaean at timesfeatured in The Colonizer and the Colonized originally published in French as Portrait du colonis prcd du portrait du colonisateur, of the complex ideological, institutional, and psycho-logical dynamics at play in the relationship between colonizer and colo-nized in the context of Algeria.

Conversely, Memmi considers the postcolonial condition more than forty years later in Decolonization and the Decolonized ; published in French as Portrait du dcolonis: Arabo-musulman et de quelques autres, in a trenchant analysis that evinces profound disenchantment with the state of affairs throughout most of the former colonies that gained indepen-dence in the vidx to late twentieth century.

Memmi essentially calls on the postcolonial leaders and ruling classes of these still young nations to take responsibility for their failures. He argues that the high levels of corruption and socioeconomic injustices, as well as shortcomings in forging a genu-inely democratic culture, cannot be simply attributed to the legacy of the Introduction xxicolonial past. Memmi is highly skeptical of the charges of neocolonialism or recolonization with regard to former colonial nations under the watchword of contemporary globalization.

In many ways he reeinvenes that postcolonial states have squandered the opportunity to exercise agency and fulfill their dreams of truly independent and egalitarian societies.

While his overall analysis is to a large degree accurate and his geopolitical range quite wide, the analytical rigor suffers at times from a lack of nuance or reivnenes lack of more careful scalar differentiation between nations and subregions around the globe. In spite of these critical misgivings, Memmis updated critical inter-vention is key in ongoing debates around globalization and postcolonialism and is relevant to understanding Africa, most particularly countries such as Angola, where the chasm between the abundant mineral wealth enjoyed by the elites and the extreme poverty of the majority population is most dramatic.

Furthermore, Memmis devastating critique of the African post-colonial experience as a whole stems from the fact that he was able to witness the unfolding of events throughout several decades after indepen-dence, contrary to Fanon or Cabral, leading to a profound disillusionment with the results. Still, back in the s, while Cabral expressed optimism in the liberation movements reingenes to identify with the people and to put the movement at the service of the peopleFanon entertained no illusions that the emergent national bourgeoisies would radically change the colonial power structure after independence Concepts such as economic dependency, internal colonialism, and the coloniality of power theorized by Latin American social scientists Prebisch [], Casanova [], Stavenhagen [], Quijano [], among others have retained significant valence for understanding not only Latin America but also Africa.

These describe not only the unequal socioeconomic and political structures of power inherited from colonial times that have overdetermined malcopm and geoeconomic dynamics between the North and the South or the centers and peripheries, but also the internal dynam-ics of formerly colonized nation-states whereby the postindependence elites have replicated such power structures.

These key concepts are now essential to the field of postcolonial studies as it has expanded beyond its Anglophone-centered moorings. Anibal Quijanos more recent notion of the coloniality of power is much indebted to the work of the abovementioned social scien-tists. He posits a racial axis at the root of the unequal socioeconomic rela-tions in the global capitalist system that still exercises its dominance, in the greater part of Latin America, reinvenez democracy, the nation, and the mod-ern nation-state While Quijanos concept is indeed useful to speak xxii Introductionabout sub-Saharan Africa, particularly to understand the enduring neo-colonial dimensions embedded in the relations between former metropoles and colonies, his fixation on the centrality of race and Eurocentrism is a conceptual limitation given that in many African countries today, the perpetuation of unequal structures of socioeconomic power inher-ited from European colonialism with important political consequences is carried out by black elites.

In fact, Marc Ferro calls this dynamic a type of class colonialism 42where decolonization has primarily involved a change of political sovereignty but not necessarily a change in the vastly unequal socioeconomic structures or the dependency ties vis–vis the for-mer metropole. Patrick Chabal sees the institutionalization of a relation of clientelism96 between the political elites and the populace in many societies in postindependence Africa: Having entrusted their future to their national liberators, ordinary men and women came to realize that they had reinvwnes mortgaged their future to modern elites whom they could scarcely reach, let alone control.

Or, rather, the only way they could connect with them was by means of clientelism So, follow-ing Chabals line of analysis, modern forms of subjecthood in postcolonial Africa have become bound to the hegemony of the dominant class in a rela-tionship of ma,colm and powerlessness.