A settlement scaled, innovative research work was done in Germany, which treated all types of building based on the ‘Leitfaden – Energienutzungsplan’ (‘ Guide. Ph.D. Dissertation. Universität Stuttgart, Stuttgart. Gerhard Hausladen and Thomas Hamacher. Leitfaden Energienutzungsplan. (Feb. ). Piet Hensel. heit (), Leitfaden Energienutzungsplan. Teil 1: Be- stands- und Potentialanalyse. Munich, pp.  Haselmayr, T. [University of Augsburg] ( ), Erneuer-.
|Published (Last):||18 March 2009|
|PDF File Size:||4.14 Mb|
|ePub File Size:||1.48 Mb|
|Price:||Free* [*Free Regsitration Required]|
Skip to main content. Log In Sign Up. This paper has the main focus in energy consumption by the residential sector in city of Prishtina. Considering the fact that the energy production in Kosovo is not sufficient in relation with the everyday demand and at the same time the growth of the energy demand based on different resources is evident, a detailed analysis and identification of the energy performance of this sector is inevitable.
One of the main components that cause the energy demand in residential sector is the heating energy demand. The energy resource and heating systems used by the residential sector in city of Prishtina are diverse.
This paper elaborates and identifies the number of residential buildings, number of dwellings, building typologies, heating energy resources, heating systems used by the dwellings and the energy demand for heating energy, by using quantitative methodology.
Based on the results achieved by the research, future detailed analysis is possible to identify other components, which affect the heating energy demand by the residential sector. These first results can be used as a basis of the first district scaled energy modeling of the city of Pristhina. By applying the energy management method, developed by Prof. After analysis of the current state of the investigated districts, future concepts will be made increasing efficiency and sustainability.
Heating energy, Energy demand, Residential buildings, Urban energy modeling 1. Production of the electrical energy in Republic of Kosovo is mostly based on fossil fuel, more precisely on coal lignite burning, which is a local natural resource.
Except the fact that it is one of the most non-efficient processes of energy production, coal burning causes pernicious effects on the environment and surrounding. Also according to calculations in global scalethe coal and petroleum stocks are running out and they can assure the energy necessity of the world till around 60—80 years .
A considerable part of energy consumption, electrical, natural resources, district heating etc. According to the official ennergienutzungsplan, the residential sector will cover around Prishtina as a capital of Republic of Kosovo, represent the biggest city in terms of economy, development and specially population growth and migration.
Based on official statistical data, Prishtina is the most populated city in Kosovo withinhabitants . As a consequence of various problems accumulated, the urban sprawl phenomenon was inevitable.
The city not only expanded, but its urban areas actually exceeded city borders and spread to cadastral parcels of neighboring cities . This shows that city of Prishtina is the most representative sample for the research. Based on the abovementioned and other numerous facts regarding the energy production, resources and energy demand, it is inevitable and urgent to seek fnergienutzungsplan alternative solutions of energy production and reduction of the actual energy consumption.
To reduce the actual energy consumption, it is vital to identify the present energy consumption by the residential sector. This paper analyses and elaborates the residential sector and the heating energy demand based on the local heating energy resources. Based on the findings of this lejtfaden it will be possible to hypothesize the actual heating energy consumption by different resources in city Prishtina based on which, it will be possible to compare the situation with other cases in European cities and plan the future solutions in terms of energy consumption.
Material and methods for urban building typology About Actual land use within the urban zone in Prishtina, source Municipality of Prishtina, Urban development plan of Prishtina source: This shows that the largest heating energy consumption comes from the residential sector. In the southern part of the city, big residential areas dominate, for example Dardania and Ulpiana neighborhoods, while the other parts of the city are dominated by the enerienutzungsplan mixed houses of the different ranges .
Based on this, the research paper treated only the residential sector as the main potential heating energy consumer. Based on the nature of this research, the methods and the data gathering consist of entirely quantitative and statistical data gathering.
Aktuelles aus dem Städtebau
To identify and clarify the actual situation of the residential sector in city of Prishtina, it was needed leitcaden adopt a very clear methodology, which would help the research to sort out the energieuntzungsplan, based on building typology, heating energy consumption and heating energy resource.
Gerhard Hausladen [10, pp. This Guide for energy use plan fit to this research work perfectly after some method modifications. Particular methodology included a number of steps, whir are divided into 4 main phases. Phases in the creation of an energy use plan, source: With these data, settlement structuring could be by identifying residential zones, building typologies and residential zones based on different building typologies. Firstly, the urban integral zones of the city of Prishtina were identified Fig.
Division of Urban Integral Areas of Prishtina, source: Urban Development Plan of Prishtina source: Identifying the main neighborhoods was vital for this phase of the research because it facilitated the identification of residential zones within the city of Prishtina leitraden general Fig.
This eased the work for identifying residential zones based on building typologies. In parallel with collection of the visual data in form of maps, plans, also statistical data was gathered. The combination of these two data types clarified in details the actual situation of city of Prishtina in terms of residential building spreading, typologies, number of buildings and dwellings.
Essential for this phase of particular research was the determination of the exact number of residential buildings and dwellings. So the graphic of typology grouping was adopted.
Neighborhoods within urban area of Prishtina source: Chart of residential buildings spreading in urban and rural zones of Prishtina Municipality source: Chart of residential buildings spreading in urban and rural zones of Prishtina Municipality, based on typology So the building types were grouped in 3 main topology groups based on building rise- low, medium and high; and sub grouping based on year of construction.
Based on this methodology, it was very easy to identify the buildings throughout urban zone of Prishtina Table IV.
H – Detached houses; SD. After the creation of residential building typology zones, it was possible to identify the spreading of different residential building types within the urban zone of Prishtina and creates a map of residential building spread based on typology Fig. Map of residential buildings spread throughout urban area of Prishtina, based on building typology source: Energy calculations based on statistical data Meanwhile it was possible to collect appropriate quality and quantity of data for residential buildings and dwellings, heating resource used by dwellings, structuring the data and categorizing all the information into tables and graphs.
The main subject of the research was to use all available data, based on which it was possible to hypothesize the actual energy consumption for heating the residential buildings, in measurable unit. So at this point it was essential to identify the energy consumption in measurable unit, of one of the resources, so it was possible to calculate the consumption for each heating resource presented in the Table V and as a result the sum of all heating resources, which would represent the total consumption.
Aktuelles aus dem Städtebau
The heated area by the district heating was identified by the Municipality of Prishtina, according to which there are m2 of heated area only in residential sector [8, pp.
Implementing a simplified calculation from which the total consumption may derive the hypothesized heating energy demand by residential sector in city of Prishtina. In this calculation it was essential to have the total heated area of the residential sector, which is connected and heated by the district heating. Based on the calculation it was presumable to find the final energy consumption of This value represents the approximate demand for heating energy by the residential sector, which is connected to the district heating system.
Table V Type of resource used for heating, by dwellings in city of Prishtina source: Kosovo Agency of Statistics [4, pp. Table VI Type of resource used for heating, by dwellings in city of Prishtina source: That means calculated with approximated 80 m2 common dwelling net floor space The heating demand of This result provides us with confidence that the calculations and final result are comparable with the reality of the current energy consumption situation.
Conclusion The heating load of dwellings in city of Prishtina results to be high in comparison with EU standards and specific building quality standards as passive-house and low energy house. As a result, the heating demand by the residential sector in city of Prishtina remains high and also the resources used for the heating remain to be non- efficient, destructive for nature and the environment. The research results could help future research works to clarify and calculate more precise energy demand for heating by the dwellings categorized in typology, year of construction.
This work has also been supported by Prof. Investigation of the energy poverty risk with building mechatronics, International Review of Applied Sciences and Engineering, Vol.
The phenomena of urban sprawl, study case of city of Prishtina, Ed.
Edmond Hajrizi, Durres, Albania, November,http: Tabula-residential building typologies in 12 European countries, good practice example from the Czech Republic, Central European Towards Sustainable Building leitfaxen, Decision-support tools and assessment methods,pp.
Balcony structures, Pollack Periodica, Vol. The significance of embodied energy in certified passive houses, International Journal of Civil, Environmental, Structural, Construction and Architectural Engineering, Vol.
Pollack Periodica 12,1. Remember me on this computer. Enter the email address you signed up with and we’ll email you a reset link. Click leitfadej to sign up. Help Center Find new research papers in: