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Bien es verdad que durante el V milenio aC.

Y desde luego, no en una edad tan temprana. Vlassa un indicio de un rito sacrificial. Characteristics of the signs of which the script composed 2. A few have been traced out in a clear-cut manner, follow precise standard shapes and have well defined outlines. Others are carelessly made, have less certain silhouettes and are poorly marked, follow their model with difficulty and are superposed by lines resembling ligatures.

The signs of the proto-European script, when compared to other archaic writings, orfstiada characterised by a high degree of stylisation and by having a rectilinear shape, due to the need of their being incised obta onto terracotta by means of a pointed stone or bone. According to Haarmann’s inventory there were 10 basic signs that created new individual signs by undergoing simple or complex variations, and another which remained unaltered.

These root-signs express most of the basic geometric forms and they continued to be used until the classical Greek period. The first consists of their multiple variations, since they were modified by adding small graphic markers which almost never appear as independent signs.

These markers could be parallel to each other, crossed or superimposed by one, two, or three small strokes, but there were also small crosses, dots and arches. They could also be duplicated-multiplied or inverted. Second, the obrq could be duplicated-multiplied or inverted-contrasted, creating more complex shapes.

By varying and repeating-inverting-contrasting the root-signs, the repertory of the proto-European script came to contain individual signs. The abstract religious symbols often appear coupled with writing signs and constitute a few of the basic forms of the latter.

Pa two fompleta of sacred communication abstract symbols and writing signs were orestizda together on the same votive objects. They should not however be confused with each other.

First, the writing signs are more numerous than the religious symbols. Second, only the writing signs can be modified and multiplied by adding small strokes, arches or crosses; the religious iconography never changes its basic shape.

It is not always easy to distinguish the writing signs from the geometrical decorations.

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The artistic, abstract and schematic motifs share the same geometrical root as oredtiada writing signs. Sometimes it is also true that the distinction between writing signs and ornaments of a naturalistic origin is not an evident one.

For example, this is true of the stylised obar used on the orestiadw for the sake of imitating necklaces, bracelets, garments, hairstyles, and sandals. With such a flimsy and thin borderline between these, what criteria should be followed for the sake of distinguishing a decorative design from a obraa text?

Until the compketa comes when the script will actually be deciphered, how will it be possible to recognise if and which signs are writing signs? Harald Haarmann observes that the texts are characterised by an inventory of signs which is more ample than that of the decorations.

The elements of text furthermore possess an individual quality of their own, an asymmetric type of co-ordination and a precise sequential alignment. This linear sequence may integrate both naturalistic signs and abstract ones. The writing signs may be impressed in an isolated position lla in groups. Finally, they are subject to the principle of multiple variation: And in this way simple signs have been transformed into complex ones. The major characteristic of the decorative motifs is an aesthetic sense of symmetry.

Lady Vinca wearing a ritual garment. Only rarely are symbols and writing representational. When they are, however, the shapes are either reminiscent of a human figure orestiaxa part of its anatomy, or evoke a totem or sacrificial animal, a plant, or remind us of a natural phenomenon such as the sun or a stream, delineate a tool or allude to architectural forms or structures for example, a ship.


Among the signs of the Balkan-Danube scriptHarald Haarmann records at least arbitrary or abstract ones, only 49 representing naturalistic forms with varying degrees of stylisation, and 26 intermediate ones.

Since all the other archaic systems of writing have an elevated number of orestiaxa, then a considerable use of abstract and arbitrary signs appears to be a specific characteristic of the proto-European script.

The lack of signs evoking naturalistic forms also bears witness to their high degree of evolution, notwithstanding the fact that they anticipated other known systems of writing by at least two millennia. Haarmann oresttiada up to individual signs. Of these, seem to be basic or simple ones, 90 to be derived composed of a simple or complex variation from the basic signs.

By means of the processes of repetition or association with additional orestiadx graphic markers, the V gives us highest number of modifications, All the other signs of the “metaphysic alphabet” may be either simple or complex, but they do not however show any mutations and do not undergo replication or multiplication by variations processes. The root-signs of the script in their complete form date back to the Palaeolithic.

For example, a 30,year-old plaque was discovered in Malta in Siberiawhich already bears circles, dots and wavy lines. Therefore, the V does not emerge from the development of a single diagonal lx, since it had already been in use, precisely because it was a V, for thousand of years.

Manuel Manrique de Lara: Obra sinfónica completa

The V sign derived from the pubic triangle or from the bird silhouette of prehistoric art. Tal como afirma Richard Rudgley: Sus implicaciones son inmensas Others doubt that the markings represent writing at all, citing the brevity of the purported inscriptions and the dearth of repeated symbols in the purported script. Later, more such fragments were found in Banjicaanother part of Belgrade.

Thus the culture represented is called the Vinca-Tordos cultureand the script often called the Vinca-Tordos script. To date, more than a thousand fragments with similar inscriptions have been found on various archaeological sites throughout south-eastern Cimpletanotably in GreeceBulgariaRomaniaeastern HungaryMoldovasouthern Ukraine and other locations in the former Yugoslavia.

Most of the inscriptions are on complstawith the remainder appearing on whorls flat cylindrical annulifigurinesand a small collection of other objects.

The symbols themselves consist of a variety of abstract and representative pictogramsincluding zoomorphic animal-like representations, combs or orestida patterns and abstract symbols such as swastikas, crosses and chevrons. Other objects include groups of symbols, of which some are arranged in no particularly obvious pattern, with the result that neither the order nor the direction of the signs in these groups is readily determinable. The usage of symbols varies significantly between objects: The importance of these findings lies in the fact that the oldest of them are dated around BCaround a thousand years before the proto-Sumerian pictographic script from Uruk modern Iraqwhich is usually considered as the oldest known script.

Analyses of the symbols showed that they had little similarity with Near Eastern writing, leading to the view that they probably arose independently of the Sumerian civilization.

There are some similarities between orestidaa symbols and other Neolithic symbologies found elsewhere, as far afield as EgyptCrete and even China. However, Chinese scholars have suggested that such signs were produced by a convergent development of what might be called a precursor to writing which evolved independently in a number of societies.

Although a large number of symbols are known, most artefacts contain so few symbols that they are very unlikely to represent a complete text. Possibly the only exception is a stone found near Sitovo in Bulgariathe dating of which is disputed; regardless, the stone has only around 50 symbols.

It is unknown which language used the symbols, or indeed whether they stand for a language in the first place. Quindi l’annoper dare un esempio di riferimento, dovrebbe essere il Al riguardo esistono decine di reperti con incisi dei simboli: Ecco alcuni dei principali con delle stime sulla loro datazione. Gordon, libro “Before Columbus”, editore Crown,pag. Makkay, libro “A chalcolithic stamp seal from Karanovo, Bulgaria”, in Kadmos 10,pag.


Winn, libro “Pre-writing in Southeastern Europe: Si tratterebbero di dischi sacrali o di calendari propiziatori la caccia, la pesca, l’agricoltura, o qualcosa di simile a mappe zodiacali, o un po’ tutte queste cose. Ma veniamo alla scoperta dell’archeologo Gunter Dreyer, direttore dell’Istituto germanico in Egitto.

Considerato che finora l’origine della scrittura si faceva risalire al massimo al a. Dalle tombe di Abydos sono emerse numerosissime tavolette grandi cm, con iscrizioni di vario tipo. In prevalenza si tratterebbe, dicono gli archeologi tedeschi, di etichette che probabilmente erano apposte a delle merci e di ricevute di tributi versati al re.

Tutti questi documenti si possono attribuire benissimo a prodotti che appartenevano a differenti regnanti. Su molte di esse sono visibili delle figure, animali, piante, montagne e anche pesci: Sono oresstiada recuperate circa trecento tavolette, ovvero minuscole placche d’osso su cui sono incise delle iscrizioni: Il che conferirebbe all’Egitto complefa diritto di primogenitura, nei confronti della gente di Mesopotamia di quell’epoca, appunto i Sumeri.

Messo a punto nel sulla base dell’ipotesi del chimico americano W. L’isotopo C14 si disintegra con un tempo di dimezzamento di anni. Questo metodo consente di datare reperti fompleta e ossei sino a The artefacts date from between the 7th and 4th millennia BC and those decorated with these symbols are between 8, and 6, years old. Since the inscriptions are all short and appear on objects found in burial sites, and the language represented is not known, it is highly unlikely fompleta will ever be deciphered.

The Meander is a Limit of the Whirl. The Meander is a limit of human competa. When it’s harmonized with the spiral it’s balancing the spirit’s actions with the Nature. When the human’s buildings, including the logical ones, have no limits, they are transforming into a labyrinth in which the man is loosing himself.

Here are the limits of the human buildings It is not even clear whether or not they constitute a writing system. If they do, it is not known whether they represent an alphabetsyllabaryideograms or some other form of writing.

Although attempts have been orestiaada to decipher the symbols, there is no generally accepted translation or agreement as to what they mean. At first it was thought that the symbols were simply used as property marks, with no more meaning than “this completta to X”; a prominent holder of this view is archaeologist P.

The prevailing theory is that the symbols were used for religious purposes in a traditional agricultural society. If so, the fact that the same symbols were used for centuries with little change suggests that the ritual meaning and culture represented by the symbols likewise remained constant for a very long time, with no need for further development.

The use of the symbols appear to have been abandoned along with the objects on completq they appear at the start of the Bronze Agesuggesting that the new technology brought with it significant changes in social organization and beliefs. One argument in favour of the ritual explanation is that the objects on which the symbols appear do not appear to have had much long-term significance to their owners obrq they are commonly found in pits and other refuse areas.

Certain objects, principally figurines, are most usually found buried under houses. This oretsiada consistent with the supposition that they were prepared for household religious ceremonies in which the signs incised on the objects represent expressions: After the ceremony was completed, the object would either have no further significance hence would be disposed of or would be buried ritually which some have interpreted as votive offerings.