Cybernetyka społeczna by Józef Kossecki(Book) 6 editions published between and in Polish and held by 38 WorldCat member libraries worldwide. Cybernetyka spoleczna. By Josef Kossecki. Poland. p. O Panstwowe Wydawnictwo Naukowe; 30Now75; AF C Panstwowe Wydawnictwo Naukowe. Józef Kossecki – cybernetyk społeczny. Writer. Beata Sosnowska artystka. Visual Arts. Łazurverse. Author. Polscy Fani Cat Power. Musician/Band. Comix Grrrlz.
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I am writing this text because I am irritated by ignorance at http: This type of text is needed for the following reasons:. The comparative science of civilizations in the approach of Feliks Koneczny was the first and the origin of sociocybernetics the only attempt of a synthetic, non one-sided approach spoecna the laws governing the rise and development of societies.
Koneczny differed from the predecessors of philosophers-historiosophists, that he created his concept based on empiricism, not on theoretical speculations, such as Marxism or racism based on one-sided theories. The one-sided theories of social development are characterized by the fact that they demonize the role of some factor and take the position that this factor in the final instance decides about social development.
Also today we are dealing with political antagonism, which somehow blinds the wide point of view of the objective analysis of the social order. On the occasion of describing one-sided ideologies, I will try to give contemporary examples from the life of one-sided social theories. Ideologies of the nineteenth and twentieth centuries intensively destroyed the former ideological order in Europe.
On the basis of the events of the Bolshevik Revolution or the armed actions of the Nazis, we, as European nations, have been severely affected by the consequences of erroneous ideologies. The most important groups of one-sided theories from the 19th century are: In order to define biologism, it would be best to divide this theory into three branches: The main representative of the organism was Herbert Spencer, who introduced to sociology such terms as function, system, institution, and popularized other terms as: Proponents of this direction carried out an analogy between the functioning of the organism and society.
They claimed that the social reality is derived from nature – there is no qualitative difference between them, and the institutions are the ones, thanks to which the non-social nature of man is adapted to the natural state of cooperation with the society.
According to Spencer, evolution consists in three simultaneous processes: It runs in various directions, only the struggle between its various results leads to the selection of the most efficient types. The basis of the law of nature was the law of equal freedom, the liberal system, because it liberated the full activity of the individual.
The state is a stable organization, the state will be industrial, free and fair in the future. Spencer assumed that every society and global society would evolve from militarism to industrialism. According to Spencer, evolution consists in the gradual progressive differentiation of parts.
Spencer derived evolutionary ethics from the theory of “struggle for existence”: To this end, it is necessary to support strong people, not weak and disadvantaged by nature. The second branch of biology is social Darwinism. Social Darwinism transfers theories of struggle for existence and theories of natural selection to social research.
Carles Robert Darwin, who tries to explain social life, its transformations and development by means of the theory of natural selection and sexual selection. Darwinian theory of natural selection and sexual selection assumes that individuals with morphological, physiological and behavioral characteristics that allow them to gain food more effectively, avoid predators, but also give an advantage in competition for a partner, leave more offspring inheriting genes conditioning better adaptation to the environment they contribute to increasing reproductive success.
Kossecki, Józef 1936-
The division into races cybernetykaa the biological distinction of types of people, and racial differences also include phenotype differences. Therefore, it is not true that racial differences do not exist, except for the color of the skin itself. Biological taxa, or race, is a set of co-occurring hereditary features established for the purpose of systematizing the division of the human race. It is worth emphasizing that these are both psychological and physical characteristics.
The differences in humanity are another matter cybernetykaa biological differences. According to the assumptions of racism, racial purity decides about everything – the purer race and more people with desirable traits, the more valuable civilization in a given country. The development of society depends on the purity of the breed and cybednetyka abilities.
The cybernteyka rejected geographical factors as shaping people and focused on the anthropological-racial issue. One of the main ideologues of racism – Artur de Gobineau – divided the race hierarchically.
As the main representatives of the noblest, according to Artur de Gobineau, he regarded the Aryan race not mossecki Germans but as Scandinavians. In his homeland, the Aryan people were best represented by French aristocrats of Arian-German origin.
The second scholar of this trend fybernetyka Houston Stewart Chamberlain. In his philosophy he preached racist spoefzna, drawing from cybernetykaa Gobineau’s works.
He recognized the inequality of human races, but the term race had a more cultural than biological meaning for him. As a result, he divided civilization into several formations, the most important of which:.
At the beginning it was dynamic and later degenerated and decomposed. They created Judaism, from which Christianity indirectly derives capable but acting destructively in the opinion of Chamberlain on the whole of society. The oldest and fantastically hybrid mixture of races.
The Aryans were feudalas, nobles. Chamberlain claimed that the aristocracy in all countries is at least kosseck Aryan, and the most – in France. The bourgeoisie is a mixture; and peasants – indigenous people very often Slavs. For the best of the spoecznz Chamberlain dybernetyka the Teutonic race, it was to be a collection of the most racially valuable elements and a spoezcna of the traditions of ancient Greece and Rome.
He preached the need to preserve its purity, mixing with representatives he considered destructive, because it weakened the spirit and somatic structure of the race of the most valuable. He preached decisive anti-Semitism – he believed in the Teutonic race against the Jewish race, which was to be the greatest enemy of the former.
His views influenced the nascent Nazism of which he was an admirer in the s. He claimed that the purest tissue of the Teutonic race was in Germany.
It would set a tone for the development of European culture, which would justify the doctrine of conquest of other races by Germanic nations.
The second of the one-sided theories is economism. Economism defines development in a strictly one-sided way, and the most common branches are free-market capitalism and Marxism. The founder of liberalism is Adam Smith, who gave rise to the Masonic ideology. At the basis of his concept lies Homo Ekonomicus – an economic man. Smith is the creator of the notion of “the invisible hand of the market.
The later mutation of economism was Marxism and Engelsism. The main ideologues were Karl Marx and Friedrich Engels. The three above sources form the so-called scientific socialism. The base of Marxism is dialectical materialism dia-matthat is, accepting as the axiom that the whole real reality is material and has no objectively existing being that could not be reduced to its material attitude, but Marxism can not be associated with physics because Marxism in contrast to the exact sciences, it denies the existence of supernatural beings.
Marxism differs cyberhetyka liberalism wider recognition cybegnetyka social life. Marx brought the theory of surplus value to economism. In any industry that is growing, the value of labor is lower than the value of goods produced by it. Marxist economics accepts that the only source of value is work.
The additional value is appropriated by the capitalist this part of the newly created value by the worker, which exceeds the costs of reconstructing his workforce. Socjocybernetyka i teoria prof. Racism cyberntyka not a philosophy, chum, and only has a capital letter on the front for grammatical reasons. It is not even a kossexki, or a principle, it belongs in the gutter with the dregs of society, with people who tell themselves lies about human value. Marxism is a political and economic philosophy that lays social human value on work and its products rather than ownership of the means of production.
Very strangely it got taken up by a political system which instead saw the value of work and production as a benefit to the national state.
Marx and his friend Engels would have been horrified to see the fruits of their work. They might slightly forgive Lenin because he expected the Soviet system to represent a stage towards a Marxist birth but instead produced an kossec,i.
The only thing that racism shares with Marxism is the final few letters. Marxism is far from one-sided, but racism certainly is.
Neither, unfortunately, does racism belong only to the 19th century, it is a mental aberration that has kissecki many sad people throughout history. Racism is not a theory but a fact we all live with every day. Marxism is the extreme left side of the political spectrum. It has been tried but never fully implemented. Even attempts at it have ended kossecli failure, poverty and weakness. Ask New Question Sign In. Why are Racism and Marxism one-sided theories from the 19th century?
This type of text is needed for the following reasons: The third and last described branch of biology is racism. One of the main ideologues of racism – Artur de Gobineau – divided kossecii race hierarchically – white raceyellow raceblack race As the main representatives of the noblest, according to Artur de Gobineau, he regarded the Aryan race not as Germans but as Scandinavians. As a result, he divided civilization into several formations, the most important of which: They created Judaism, from which Christianity indirectly derives capable but acting destructively in the opinion of Chamberlain on the koxsecki of society; – Teuton, which included the Germanic nations, the Celts.
He is the source of Marxism 1. Utopian socialism by Owen, Count Saintsimon and Furie. Of course Marxism is a one-sided theory without empirical evidence. Although statement about value of work is interesting. Are you against racism in this century? What is the alternative to marxism in cybernetgka 21st century?
What is the difference between classical Marxism and political Marxism? Is Marxism-Leninism viable in the 21st century?
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Related Questions Why did Marxist theory stop developing, and stay frozen in a 19th century view kosseccki society? Why was Marxism significant in Russia in the late 19th and early 20th centuries?
What is the difference between Marxism and modern Marxism?