Ipuwer Papyrus In the early 19th Century a papyrus, dating from the end of the Middle Kingdom, was found in Egypt. It was taken to the Leiden Museum in. A. Sutherland – – Ipuwer, an ancient Egyptian sage was the author of a hieratic manuscript known as “Ipuwer Papyrus” (or. But to conclude from such parallelisms that the Ipuwer Papyrus describes Egypt at the time of the Exodus, requires a leap of faith not everybody is willing to.
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A Christian apologetics ministry dedicated to demonstrating papyrys historical reliability of the Bible through archaeological and biblical research. Produced and narrated by Simcha Jacobovici, the film purportedly ipuwwr new evidence to demonstrate the Exodus really happened. Our Ministry relies on the generosity of people like you. Every small donation helps us develop and publish great articles.
In the end, Jacobovici does more harm than good since he mishandles the archaeological evidence, hence providing fuel to skeptics who wish to undermine the Exodus. Ahmose went on to establish the powerful Egyptian 18th Dynasty. Jacobovici claims that the darkness and storm ipkwer in the stela are related to the Biblical plagues. His major premise in the documentary is that the Biblical Exodus is the same event as the expulsion of the Hyksos in Egyptian records.
This raises three insurmountable problems. First, the expulsion is dated to the 15th year of Ahmose, ca. Jacobovici overcomes this difficulty by arbitrarily splitting the difference papyrys the two events; he raises the date of the Exodus to BC and lowers the date of the expulsion to BC. Even with this nifty slight-of-hand, there is not a good correlation between the stela and the Biblical plagues. The stela tells of darkness and a fierce rain storm that caused devastating flooding Redford The second major problem with the hypothesis is that the Hyksos were not slaves, but wealthy merchants and rulers of Egypt.
The Hyksos, in fact, ruled Egypt for years. They built palaces and temples ipuder their capital iuwer of Avaris, and had far-flung commercial operations. By associating the Exodus event with the expulsion of the Hyksos, Jacobovici i;uwer that, for the first time, we know who the Pharaoh of the Exodus was—Ahmose.
But Jacobovici is not the first to make a connection between the expulsion of the Hyksos and the Israelite Exodus. As we have seen, however, more than years separate Ahmose and the Pharaoh of the Exodus, so the identification is invalid. In addition, the third problem with Jacobovici’s thesis iphwer that Ahmose drove the Hyksos out of their capital Avaris by force of arms, whereas the Israelites left peacefully when Pharaoh ordered them out to avoid further calamities.
Wooden sarcophagus of Ahmose, Egyptian Museum, Cairo. Tomb at Beni Hasan.
The length of the Sojourn as recorded in the Bible was years Ex He then goes on to say that the Beni Hasan tomb painting dates to BC. The painting is clearly dated by an inscription to the papyrjs year of Sesostris II, ca.
Setting the chronological faux pas aside, the association is not a good one. Jacobovici claims that the Beni Hasan group came from the area of modern Israel, whereas the inscription says they came from Shutnot Retenu or Hurruthe Egyptian names for the area of modern Israel. This is also the location of Rameses, the place where the Israelites settled Gn It is this later, better-known, name that is used in the Bible since the earlier names of the site there were several went out of use.
The Austrian team excavating the site found nine scarabs beetle-shaped ipuwee bearing the name of a Hyksos called Jacob-Her dating to ca. Jacobovici does not explain. In reality, Jacob was a common Semitic name and in this case probably belonged to a prominent Hyksos leader or businessman.
Debunking “The Exodus Decoded”
Serabit el-Khadem is an area of turquoise mines in the northwestern part of the southern Sinai Peninsula. Inscriptions in both Egyptian hieroglyphs and early Semitic Canaanite alphabetic script iupwer with pictographic signs have been found there.
The Semitic inscriptions are assumed to have been written by Asiatic slaves who worked in the mines. Whether or not these inscriptions can be related to the period of Israelite slavery in Egypt is an open question.
Specialists are divided as to whether they should be dated to the Middle Kingdom ca. Santorini Pumice in Egypt. The second major premise of The Exodus Decoded is that tectonic activity caused the eruption of the Santorini volcano and triggered earthquakes, bringing about the plagues in Egypt. Jacobovici says the eruption took place in BC at the time of the Exodus. The date of the eruption is a papyrua debated topic.
Carbon samples suggest a date of ca. Here, we run into another major chronological difficulty. The pumice was found in an archaeological stratum later than the reign of Ahmose Bietak Again, we have a chronological problem.
Although Jacobovici states that many scholars date the Ipuwer Papyrus to the Hyksos period, the fact of the matter is that most Egyptologists date it to the First Intermediate Period ca. It tells of ordeals and calamities blamed on an unnamed king, perhaps Pepy II ca.
ABR file photo Exhibit H: Santorini Ash in the Nile Delta. Jacobovici claims that an ash cloud from Santorini caused the darkness of the ninth plague. There is no question but what Santorini ash arrived on the shores of Egypt. But the pumice evidence indicates that this was after the Hyksos period. Jacobovici asserts that mass burials of males in pit graves at Tell el-Daba are evidence for plague 10, the death of the firstborn.
However, he presents only part of the evidence. As usual, there is a chronological problem. The burials are from the early 18th Dynasty, after the expulsion of the Hyksos. In addition, the individuals have a very narrow age range: We would expect victims of plague 10 to be younger than 18 and older than Anthropological examination has shown that some of the individuals were Nubians, commonly employed in the Egyptian army in this time period. Since the burials were in the area of a military camp and arrowheads were found in the graves, the most logical explanation is that the burials were soldiers from the Egyptian army.
Such an event occurred in at Lake Neos, Cameroon, when carbon dioxide gas was released from the mineral-saturated waters trapped in the lake’s depths.
A similar event could not happen in a river, however, because moving water prevents minerals from accumulating at the bottom as in a stationary lake.
The el-Arish Inscription is a text from the Ptolemaic period —31 BC written on a shrine found at el-Arish on the Mediterranean coast in northern Sinai. It is a legendary text concerning the gods Shu, god of air and sunlight, and his son Geb, god of the earth, and has nothing to do with the Exodus. Immanuel Velikovsky related the inscription to the crossing of the sea in his books Worlds in Collision and Ages in Chaos. We find names altered and combined, words mistranslated, characters confused with one another or split in two, and events set in the wrong time and place.
To permit Velikovsky to make the associations he does, one would have to take a sledgehammer to the shrine, smash it to bits, and reassemble the pieces in a different order. Yam Suph Reed Sea. Based on the el-Arish inscription J. On this point, we can agree with Jacobovici. It is not the el-Arish inscription that leads to this identification, however, it is modern archaeological research Byers a; b.
This was the area of the northern end of the Ballah Lake prior to the cutting ppyrus the canal in — This is possibly the area where the Israelites crossed the Reed Sea. ABR photo by Michael Luddeni. Although this interpretation is undoubtedly wrong, there is ample evidence to indicate that there was contact between the Minoans and Egypt. From this interchange, he contends that some of the followers of Moses in Egypt were Aegeans from Greece and that they returned to Greece shortly after the Exodus.
It i;uwer necessary to make this connection in order bring in artifacts from Greece that supposedly relate to the Exodus Exhibit N and Final Exhibit below. Needless to say, there is no evidence to suggest that there were Aegeans enslaved in Egypt when the Israelites were there.
Egyptian texts only speak of Asiatic slaves at that time David Minoan wall appyrus of a naval procession, West House, Akrotiri, Santorini. Rather than depicting a voyage to Avaris in Egypt as claimed in The Exodus Decodedit is more likely a cultic procession taking papyruss somewhere in the Aegean. ABR file photo Exhibit N: Grave Stelae of Mycenae. Since there is no evidence that there were Greeks among appyrus Israelite tribes that left Egypt, there is no basis for interpreting the images on grave stelae at Mycenae as scenes of the sea crossing as claimed by Jacobovici.
Sinai is admirable in that he utilizes Biblical data. Unfortunately, some of his information is incorrect. He bases the location papygus the distances the Israelites could travel within the Biblical timeframe. He begins by saying it took the Israelites 14 days to travel from Elim to Mt. Elim, he suggests, is located at Ayun Musa on the northeast shore of the Gulf of Suez, which is no doubt correct, but his timeline is off.
Ipuwer Papyrus – Wikipedia
According to Exodus So, the travel time from Elim to the Desert of Sinai was more than 30 days, not 14 days. The daily rate of travel Jacobovici assumes, 15 km 9 mi is also incorrect.
Pastoralists traveling with their flocks can go no more than 10 km 6 mi per day Wood In addition, one cannot simply multiply a rate of travel times the number of days traveled and draw a straight line on a map to locate Mt.
The ancient routes and the zigs and zags and ups and downs of traveling by foot in a rugged terrain must be taken into account. Although Hashem el-Tarif may be a valid candidate for Mt. The spirals, which Jacobovici says are waves, are a common Mycenaean motif.
University of Oklahoma Final Exhibit: The Ark of the Covenant.