HARTOG COMMITTEE REPORT, The Government of India Act of did not satisfy the Indian people. In order to satisfy the Indian people it was felt. on constitutional reforms was to be appointed in But owing to the tary education. The auxiliary Committee popularly known as the Hartog Committee. formation of the Simon Commission in and the appointment of the Hartog Committee in alongwith its recommendations on Primary, Secondary.
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Answer briefly the following questions: What are the defects of secondary education? Alternative courses proposed by the Hartog committee. Service condition of teachers. List the defects of committeee education as pointed out by Hartog committee What suggestions were made by the committee for improvement?
Hartog Committee Report, 1929
We know that the essence of Hartog committee was the importance on qualitative improvement of primary education and not on the quantitative expansion. Accordingly some steps taken by the Government led to the qualitative improvement of this stage.
But the general people of the country were asking for quantitative expansion. So the recommendations of the committee aroused sharp reaction. People wanted an education policy which could lead to the increase in the rate of literacy. In fact, increase in literacy was the need of the country.
However, little was done upto to develop harrtog education. The total numbers of primary schools were 1, 96, in During the number came down to 1, 92, Such was the sorry plight of primary education in the country.
Hartog Committee Report,
The condition of secondary education however, was better than that of primary hsrtog. The numbers of students were also doubled. The cause of the improvement had been the efforts of private enterprises and awakening of national spirit. A spirit of love for education was developed in all sections of the people.
Notes for UPSC: Hartog Committee
There was a healthy competition among the people for opening new schools and many teachers opened their own schools by being dissatisfied with the existing state of educational affairs. Due to the growth of secondary education higher education also developed.
A number of new universities and colleges were opened during this period. The number of teaching department in universities and colleges had gone up to in from in Besides new degree colleges and universities were opened during the period. Some special institutions like Shantiniketan founded by Rabindra Nath 9129 were also established.
Delhi university was established inNagpurAgra conmittee, Andhra university in and Annamalai in Most of the students were attracted towards higher education because they realised that secondary education could not fulfill their aspirations. Moreover university educated persons were getting preference over matriculation passed individuals.
Therefore there was a rush towards higher education. But the report of the Hartog committee received cold and hostile reception in the nationalist circles because they felt that a definite programme of expansion was urgently needed for the liquidation of illiteracy and mass education in the country.
It was criticised as political device to check the expansion of mass education. What does Hartog Committee say on women education. Evaluate the recommendations of the Hartog Committee. Historical Background of the Setting up of the Committee 19929. Terms of Reference of the Committee 7. Report of the Hartog Committee 1. Recommendations on Primary Education 2.
Recommendations on Secondary Education 3. Recommendations on Higher Education 4. Recommendations on Women Education 5. An Evaluation of the Recommendations 9.
Result of Recommendations Let Us Sum Up Answers to Check Your Progress Explain the historical background, i. The outbreak of the war had brought about significant changes in the British policy of administration in India.
These changes had made long standing impact on both political and educational scenario of our country. It is necessary for us to know what these changes were and how they influenced the political and educational aspects of the country.
In this unit, we will first discuss the historical background of the setting up of the Hartog Committee in This includes discussion on the Montford reform and education in the System of Diarchy. This will be followed by formation of the Simon Commission in and the appointment of the Hartog Committee in alongwith its recommendations on Primary, Secondary, Higher and other aspects of education.
We will conclude with an assessment and evaluation of the recommendations of the committee and its result.
Recommendation of Hartog Commission (1929)
It has already been mentioned above that outbreak of the First World War had brought some gartog changes in the British policy of administration in India. In ,Edwin Montaque, the Secretary harhog State for India had announced in the British Parliament that the goal of the British policy is the progressive realisation of responsible Governance in India.
This has created an impresion in the mind of the nationalist leaders that the British Government was willing to give the power of self administration to Indian people. But when the war came to an end the British Government did not keep their promise. This made the Indian people offended and new political unrest was imminent. In order to meet the situation the Government passed the Government of India Act increating a diarchy in the provincial administration.
This Act is known as Montford Reform. The Montford reforms introduced diarchy in the field of education as well. Under this introduction of some subjects were under the centre and some under the provincial Governments.
These were called reserved and transferred respectively. Education was transferred committer the representatives of the people. Thus all the educational powers were transferred to the education ministers of the various Provincial Governments but they were given rights within a limited sphere. Finance was kept back as a reserved subject. Without finances education could not proceed. This created problems for the representatives of the people.
The central Government had made the state administrators completely responsible for education in spite of very limited resources at their disposal. It was impossible for them to spend sufficient money for the progress of education. On the other hand, the Governors of the provinces were given unlimited powers.
They could intervene even in the transfer of teachers. All these things created a difficult situation for the progress of education. Diarchy did not prove successful in India. A lot of criticism was levelled against it. Thus Montford reform did not help the development of education in the country. The Indian leaders were not satisfied with the working of diarchy. The nationalist movement by the time became more powerful in the states on account of the repressive measures taken by the Government.
In Gandhiji had launched the Non-cooperation movement and as response to his call students had left their schools and colleges and joined the movement. Thus, the attention of the people was diverted towards political movement. Now that you are familiar with the historical background, let us discuss the formation of the Simon Commission and the Hartog Committee. By responding to the dissatisfaction felt by the Indian people about the Government of India Act ofthe Simon Commission was appointed on November 8,to inquire into the working of the administration under the Government of India Act, About this time as agitation against the Government was going on, it was felt necessary to give due importance to education in India.
The Government therefore authorised the commission to appoint a Committee to help it in preparing a report on education. So the commission appointed a committee under the chairmanship of Sir Phillip Hartog to inquire into the conditions of education in India. Sir Phillip Hartog had served as a number of the Sadler Commission. He had also been a vice-Chancellor of the Dacca University in Since he was the chairman of the Committee, the Committee was known as Hartog Committee.
It is necessary for us to know the terms of reference of the Hartog Committee— The Hartog committee was appointed to enquire the organisation of various aspects of education in India and to give its suggestions for its over all improvement and progress. Let us discuss the report of the Hartog Committee on different aspects of education.
The Committee studied the various aspects of education and submitted its report before the commission inIt put forward comprehensive recommendations in regard to various facts of education in India.
First, the Committee made some general observations regarding the state of education in India. The committee observed that there was considerable progress made in education by the time. In general, people regarded education as a matter of national importance. Increasing enrolment in primary school indicates that the sense of indifference to education was breaking down and social and political consciousness among the people had also increased.
The women, the Muslims and the backward classes had also awakened and there had been rapid progress in the numbers. Although there was general consciousness of the people in education, the Committee was not satisfied with the growth of literacy in the country. With these ideas in view, the Committee presented a comprehensive report. It was valuable in the sense that it tried to feel the pulse of education in India.