PDF | Gerbera (Gerbera jamesonii Bolus) is one of the most popular ornamental flowers worldwide and used both as cut flower and potted. PDF | Gerbera jamesonii (gerbera) is an important cut-flower in the global floricultural industry. Micropropagation is the main system used to. PDF | In present research, the effects of light quality on micropropagation of gerbera were investigated. The MS medium containing 1 mg L-1 BAP and mg .
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Abstract Regeneration micropropagahion in Gerbera jamesonii Bolus ex. In vitro regeneration, callus induction and root formation were optimized by manipulation of growth regulators during organogenesis. These plant growth regulators were added to Murashige and Skoog medium in different combinations and concentrations.
Adventitious shoots were obtained from petiole explants cultured on Murashige and Skoog MS medium supplemented with 2.
Effectiveness of shoot regeneration medium, type of growth regulator used and duration of induction period were investigated. Leaf explants cultured on Miicropropagation medium supplemented with 1. Root explants were found to be non-regenerative in all experiments conducted. Petiole segment was identified as the best explant for regeneration of this species.
Micropropagation of Gerbera (Gerbera jamesonii Bolus).
Regenerated plants were rooted on Murashige and Skoog basal medium. Tissue culture technique has long been used since the cell theory was established.
Many scientists have tried to prove the totipotency concept, which is the ability of a single cell to form complete individual. Today, tissue culture technique is being used widely realizing its potentials in mass propagation and preservation of elite plants.
The most important imcropropagation in plant tissue culture is the capability of micropropagatiion cells and tissues to regenerate into complete plants. This technology is being utilized commercially in the ornamentals industry and in other plant production organizations worldwide Chu, ; Huetteman and Preece, ; Mantell et al.
Many temperate and tropical plants have been successfully propagated via tissue culture. In vitro response of plant tissues depends on genotype, the physiological status of the donor plant, the type of explant, the culture medium and their interactions Tosca et al. The physiological status of the donor is determined by environmental conditions such as temperature, light intensity, day-length and light wavelength.
Plant regeneration micrporopagation direct organogenesis is much preferred over regeneration micropropaation somatic embryogenesis and callus culture Arockiasamy et al. Adventitious organogenesis or shoot formation is a preferred system as it enables to retain the clonal fidelity since many ornamental species are cultivars that are propagated for one or more unique microprpagation Kantia and Kothari, The propagation rates via organogenesis can be much higher than axillary shoot proliferation Chun, In the present study, propagation micropropafation Gerbera jamesonii through tissue culture techniques was done and the factors influencing the growth of this plant were studied.
Gerbera jamesonii Bolus ex. They are planted outdoors in full sun and useful as cut flowers, pot plant and also bedding plant. This species consists of many cultivars with variety of colors and shapes and they are popular commercial plants. Gerbera jamesonii is also used in the preparation of traditional Chinese medicine, tu-er-feng, for curing cold and also for treating rheumatism Ye et al.
Plant microopropagation by tissue culture technique is mainly aimed to produce plants with very high multiplication rates. Through indirect organogenesis, multiple shoots can be produced in vitro from callus.
Because genetic variability within the Gerbera genus is relatively limited, breeding potential for new flower colours and patterns as well as resistance to biotic or abiotic stresses is also limited Orlikowska et al.
In the present study, experiments were conducted to investigate organogenesis from various sources of Gerbera explants. The effects of various concentrations of plant growth regulators on the multiplication of shoots were examined. The study was conducted at laboratory B2.
Explants were obtained from 8-week-old aseptic seedlings. Finally the seeds were rinsed 3 times with sterile distilled water.
Sterilized seeds were cultured on basal MS Murashige and Skoog, medium. Petioles and leaves obtained from aseptic young plantlets formed from the seedlings were used as source of explants.
MICROPROPAGATION OF GERBERA
Plantlets were transferred to soil and maintained in culture room for weeks for adaptation process before being transferred to field environment. In vitro propagated Gerbera plants were compared morphologically with the intact plant. Survival rate of micro propagated plants that were transferred to soil were investigated Fig. Plant hormones and type of explants play very important roles in determining gerberx of Gerbera jamesonii in vitro. Many commercial ornamental plants are being propagated by in vitro culture on the culture medium containing auxins and cytokinins Preil, ; Rout and Jain, Ornamental plants gerbefa woody plant species are also propagated commercially by axillary bud proliferation Mantell et al.
Various explants have been used for direct shoot formation. Different types of auxin and cytokinin combinations were used in order to obtain complete regeneration of Gerbera in vitro.
BAP strongly enhanced regeneration of shoots in petiole explants of Gerbera jamesonii. The right combination of auxin and cytokinin gerberw the culture medium determined the effectiveness of micro terbera of Gerbera shoots. Highest numbers of shoots from petiole explants 9. Shoots were obtained micropropagatioh 28 days of culture and shoot gerberw was normal.
The lowest shoot formation was observed when explants were cultured on MS medium supplemented with 0. However, higher addition of auxin compared to cytokinin in the culture medium resulted in the inhibition of shoot formation. Shoot formation was observed when capitulum explants were cultured on MS modified medium supplemented with 2.
Lower concentration of TDZ promoted direct shoot regeneraration and higher concentrations promoted callus induction in Hagenia abyssinica Bruce J. The present study showed that only petiole explant produced optimum results for shoot formation. Micropropagatiom explant promoted callus development. Vardja and Vardja reported that, the addition of 10 mg L -1 BAP in culture medium increased the formation of adventitious buds of Gerbera at initiation and multiplication stage.
However, in this study, at a very high concentration of BAP and other growth regulators, development and growth of shoots were inhibited.
It is reported that a good combination of cytokinin and auxin in the culture medium enhanced good shoot formation and plantlet regeneration from explants, for example, adventitious Gerbera shoots were regenerated from flower buds of greenhouse grown plants Pierik et al.
The studing of micropropagation of Gerbera sp via shoot tip explant. 
Takayama and Misawa reported that medium containing 0. The combination of low concentration of cytokinin and auxin initiated propagation of Begonia species Reuter and Bhandari, Cytokinin alone in the culture medium induces shoot formation in many plants.
However, in Gerbera jamesoniicytokinin alone in the medium induces the formation of microshoots. Combination of auxin and cytokinin induces the formation of adventitious shoots and roots.
Addition of auxins together with cytokinins becomes essential for shoot induction and multiplication depending on the plant type.
Micropropagation of Saintpaulia ionantha was optimized when petiole explants were cultured on MS medium supplemented with 2.
Rancillac and Nourrisseau improved the performance of micropropagated strawberry plants by decreasing the cytokinin concentration and limiting the number of subcultures.
High concentrations of cytokinin in culture medium were found to be unsuitable for shoot formation from leaf or petiole explants in some ornamentals. Terbera plantlets formed were transferred to soil with The regenerated plants were observed to be normal. The first step towards de novo regeneration is to micropropagatuon callus or cell suspension cultures.
Tissues of explants generally show distinct planes of cell division, various specializations of cells and organization into specialized structures such as the vascular system.
Formation of callus from explants tissues involves the development of progressively more random planes of cell division, less frequent specialization of cells and loss of organized structures Thorpe, ; Gerbefa et al.
In Gerbera jamesoniiBAP gerbega also required for the formation of callus. Based on the present study, all combinations of hormones used were able to induce callus.
Callus with good and compact structure was obtained when explant was cultured on MS medium supplemented with the combination of BAP and 2, 4-D.
Relatively, in this experiment, callus formation was optimum when leaf explant was cultured on MS medium supplemented with 1. This callus gave the highest dry weight. However, white, creamy friable callus was obtained when explants were cultured on MS medium supplemented with 2, 4-D alone. The lowest callus formation was obtained when root explant was cultured on MS medium supplemented with microproagation.
In Begoniathe addition of kinetin and zeatin in the culture medium Murashige and Skoog, induced multiple shoots Jain, gerbefa Callus is capable of forming adventitious roots. Root formation occurred when explants were cultured on medium with higher auxin concentration and lower cytokinin concentration.
Highest root formation was obtained when leaf explants were cultured on MS medium supplemented with 0. However, regeneration of root was not observed when explants were cultured on MS medium supplemented with BAP and 2, 4-D. Bigot reported that the addition of g L -1 activated charcoal in the culture medium showed vigorous rooting from excised shoots of Gfrbera hiemalis. However, in Gerberaaddition of charcoal is not necessary for rooting.
Shoots and roots of chrysanthemum were developed on a single medium containing 1. Root explants itself also induced the formation of micropropaagation in vitro. Rooted plantlets of Gerbera were successfully established and all plantlets were transferred to soil and maintained micropropagtaion the green house. Plantlets survival rate achieved was The main purpose for propagation of ornamental plants is for its aesthetic value. Thus, improvements of plant quality need to be studied and more research needs to be done.
One of the most important techniques in plant improvements is via micro propagation. Successful in vitro propagation of ornamental plants is now being widely used in commercialization purposes. In conclusion, the research done has proven that micro propagation of Gerbera jamesonii Bolus ex. Petiole explants have been identified as the most regenerative explants for multiple shoot formation. Studies of Gerbera clonal propagation could also be efficiently adapted for other ornamental plants.
The authors wish to thank the Institute of Biological Sciences and University of Malaya, Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia for providing all facilities and financial support.
This research was funded by Vote F Grant No. Direct organogenesis from mature leaf and petiole explants of Eryngium foetidum L. Micropropagation of Woody Plants, Ahuja, M.