Fior di Battaglia: MS Ludwig XV 13 – J. Paul Getty Museum Fior di Battaglia: M. – Pierpoint Morgan Library Flos Duellatorum: Pisani-Dossi MS -Private. The Flower of Battle (Flos Duellatorum in Latin or Fior di Battaglia in Italian) XV 13; Morgan Library M; a copy privately held by the Pisani-Dossi family; and. Aug 16, Flos Duellatorum (“The Flower of Battle”, Pisani-Dossi MS) is an Italian fencing manual authored by Fiore de’i Liberi and dated 10 February

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He is the earliest Italian master from whom we have an extant [update] martial arts manual. Fiore dei Liberi was born in Cividale del Friulia town in the Patriarchal State of Aquileia in the Friuli region of modern-day Italy, the son of Benedetto and scion of a Liberi house of Premariacco. Fiore wrote that he had a natural inclination to the martial arts and began training at a young age, ultimately studying with “countless” masters from both the Italian and German parts of the Holy Roman Empire.

He also writes of meeting many “false” or unworthy masters who lacked even the limited skill he’d expect in a good student, [6] and mentions that on five separate occasions he was forced to fight duels for his honor against certain of these masters whom he described as envious because he refused to teach them his art; the duels were all fought with sharp longswordsunarmored except for gambesons and chamois glovesand he stated that he won each without injury. Based on Fiore’s autobiographical account, he can tentatively be placed in Perosa Perugia in when Piero del Verde likely fought a duel with Pietro della Corona Peter Kornwald.

Fiore seems to have sided with the secular nobility against the Cardinal as in there is record of him being tasked by the grand council with inspection and maintenance on the artillery pieces defending Udine including large crossbows and catapults. The war continued until a new Patriarch was appointed in and a peace settlement was reached, but it’s unclear if Fiore remained involved for the duration.

Flos Duellatorum

Given that he appears in council records five times init would be quite odd for him to be completely unmentioned over the subsequent five years, [8] and since his absence after May coincides with a proclamation in July of that year demanding that Udine cease hostilities or face harsh repercussions, it seems more likely that he moved on. After the war, Fiore seems to have traveled a good deal in northern Italy, teaching fencing and training men for duels.

Galeazzo made the challenge when Boucicaut called into question the valor of Italians at the royal court mrgan France, and the duel was ultimately set for Padua on 15 August.

The duel was to begin with spears on horseback, but Boucicaut became impatient and dismounted, attacking his opponent before he could mount his own horse.

Cattaneo landed a solid blow on the Frenchman’s helmetbut was subsequently disarmed. At this point, Boucicaut reached for duelltaorum poleaxe but the lords intervened to end the duel. Fiore surfaces again in Pavia inthis time training Giovannino da Baggio for a duel with a German squire named Sirano.

It was fought on 24 June and attended by Gian Galeazzo ViscontiDuke of Milanas well as the duchess and other nobles. The duel was to consist of three bouts of mounted lance duel,atorum by three bouts each of dismounted poleaxeestocand dagger.

They ultimately rode two additional passes and on the fifth, Flis impaled Sirano’s horse through the chest, slaying the horse but losing his duellaatorum in the process.

They fought the other nine bouts as scheduled, and due to the strength of their armor and the fact that all of flks weapons were bluntedboth combatants reportedly emerged from these exchanges unharmed.

Fiore was likely involved in at least one other duel that year, between his final named student Azzone di Castelbarco and Giovanni degli Ordelaffias the latter is known to have died in Based on the allegiances of the nobles that he trained in the s, he seems to have been associated with the ducal court of Milan in the latter part of his career.


The briefest version of the text is dated to and indicates that it was a labor of six months and great personal effort; [6] as evidence suggests that two longer versions were composed some time before this, [28] we may assume that he devoted a considerable mprgan of time to writing during this decade.

Beyond this, nothing certain is known of Fiore’s activities in the 15th century. Francesco Novati and D. Blengini di Torricella stated that late in life he made his way to Paris, France, where he could be placed teaching fencing in and creating a copy of a fencing manual located there in Though he attributes these facts to Novati, no publication verifying them has yet been located.

Despite the depth and complexity of his writings, Fiore dei Liberi does not duelltaorum to have been a very influential master in the development of Italian fencing. That field was dueellatorum dominated by the tradition of his near-contemporary duellaforum Bolognese master Filippo di Bartolomeo Dardi.

Even so, there are a number of later treatises which bear strong resemblance to his work, including the writings of Philippo di Vadi and Ludwig VI von Eyb of Hartenstein.

Fiore dei Liberi

This may be due to the direct influence of Fiore or his writings, or it may instead indicate that the older tradition of Johane and Nicholai survived and spread outside of his direct line. Four illuminated manuscript copies of this treatise survive, and there are records of at least two others whose current locations are unknown.

Latin lost any dedication it might have had along with floss prologue. Each of the extant copies of the Flower of Battle follows a distinct order, though both of these pairs contain strong similarities to each other in order of presentation. The major sections of the work include: Brief bridging sections serve to connect each of these, covering such topics as bastoncelloor plays of a small stick or baton against unarmed and modgan opponents; plays of longsword vs.

The format of instruction is largely consistent across all copies of the treatise. Each section begins with a group of Masters or Teachersfigures in golden crowns who each demonstrate a particular guard for use with their weapon.

These are followed by a master called “Remedio” remedy who demonstrates a defensive technique against some basic attack usually how to use one of the listed guards to defendand then by his various Scholars morrgan Studentsfigures wearing golden garters on their legs who demonstrate iterations and variations of this remedy.

After the scholars there is typically a master called “Contrario” counterwearing both crown and garter, who demonstrates how to counter the master’s remedy and those of his scholarswho morgqn likewise sometimes followed by his own scholars in garters.

In rare cases, a fourth type of master appears called “Contra-Contrario” counter-counterwho likewise wears the crown and garter and demonstrates how to defeat the master’s counter. Some sections feature multiple master remedies or master counters, while some have only one.

There are also many cases in which an image in one duellqtorum will only feature a scholar’s garter xuellatorum the corresponding image in another also includes a master’s crown. Depending on the instance, this may either be intentional or merely an error in the art. Novati described it as a small, thin, vellum folio, pen and ink with gold highlights, duelatorum illustrations of sword and lance combat on foot and horseback.

This is the briefest copy of Fiore’s work currently duellattorum, with only 19 folios; it has a prologue in Italian and four illustrated figures per page in the main body. The figures are accompanied by text that is often identical to that of the Ms. Ludwig XV 13 excepting differences in spellingbut at times includes additional explanation. It also refers to a certain lfos of the sword in one hand which is likewise missing from that section.


This manuscript is typically referred to as the ‘Pierpont Morgan version’ or simply the ‘Morgan’. The known provenance of the Ms. Its prologue, format, illustrations, and text are all very similar to the Ms. The text takes the form of descriptive paragraphs set in poor Italian verse, [32] which are nevertheless fairly clear and informative. Despite its duellatormu characteristics with the Ms. This is the longest and most comprehensive of the four manuscripts of Fior di Battaglia. This manuscript is typically referred to as the ‘Getty version’.

Ludwig XV 13 is: The Pisani Dossi Ms. It consists of 36 folia and possesses two different prologues, one in Renaissance Latin and morfan in Italian. The body of the text consists of four to six illustrations per flps, each with only a brief couplet or quatrain to explain it.

Fior di Battaglia (MS M) ~ Wiktenauer ~☞ Insquequo omnes gratuiti fiant

This manuscript is typically referred to as either the ‘Novati’ or ‘Pisani Dossi version’. However, it is unclear how accurate this facsimile is as evidence suggests that Novati may have hired an artist to create a tracing of the original manuscript rather than reproducing it directly.

The known provenance of the Pisani Dossi Ms. Unlike Fiore’s other works, this manuscript is written entirely in Latin; its descriptions are cast in couplets and quatrains similar to the Pisani Dossi Ms. This manuscript is generally referred to as either the Florius or the Paris. The known provenance of the Mss. It consisted of 58 folios bound in leather with a clasp, with a white eagle and two helmets on the first page.

The Codex CX or Ms. It consisted of 15 small-format folios on unbound parchment, and was written in two columns. The contents and current whereabouts of these copies of the Flower of Battle are unknown. It is possible that these listings refer to manuscripts listed above, though none currently possess the correct number of folios or match the physical descriptions. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. Fiore Furlano de’i Liberi.

This master with a forked beard appears sporadically throughout both the Getty and Pisani Dossi mss. Jixiao XinshuMuyejebo. Fior di Battaglia [manuscript]. See Malipiero, p Origins and Motivations “. Journal of Western Martial Art. Electronic Journals of Martial Arts and Sciences, Della Eloquenza italiana di monsignor Giusto Fontaninip. Notizie delle vite ed opere scritte da’ letterati del Friulip. Signore di Colle di Val d’Elsa. Note biografiche di Capitani di Guerra e di Condottieri di Ventura operanti in Italia nel — Secondo alcune fonti, di Grumello nel pavese.

See Fiore his masters and his students.

Ludwig XV 13 mention the slightly shorter “forty years and more”. See Blengini, di Torricella C. Retrieved 12 November dhellatorum The Martial Arts of Renaissance Europe.

New Haven and London: Florius de arte luctandiBnF Ms. Lat ” PDF. Historical Fencing Dot Org. Retrieved from ” https: Webarchive template wayback links Articles with incomplete citations from December All articles with incomplete citations Use dmy dates from May Articles with hCards Articles containing potentially duelltorum statements from All articles containing potentially dated statements All articles with unsourced statements Articles with unsourced statements from January CS1 Glos sources it CS1 errors: Views Read Edit View history.

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