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Ejan is when the child is accustomed to act from the point of view of those around him, when he tries to please rather than to obey, that he will judge in terms of intentions.

So that taking intentions into account presupposes cooperation and mutual respect. Only those who have children of their own know how difficult it is to put this into practice. Such is the prestige of parents in the eyes of the very young child, that even if they lay down nothing in the form of general duties, their wishes act as law and piagft give rise automatically to moral realism independently, of course, of the manner in which the child eventually carries out these desires.

In order to remove all traces of moral realism, one must place oneself on the child’s own level, and give him a feeling of equality by laying stress on one’s own obligations and one’s own deficiencies. In this way the child will find himself in the presence, not of a system of commands requiring ritualistic and external obedience, but of a system of social relations such that everyone does his best to obey the same obligations, and does so out of mutual respect.

The passage from obedience to cooperation thus marks a progress analogous to that of which we saw the peistemologia in the evolution of the game of marbles: When parents do not trouble about such considerations as these, when they issue contradictory commands and are inconsistent in the punishments they inflict, then, obviously, it is not because of moral constraint but in spite of and as a reaction against it that the concern with intentions develops in the child.

Frases de Jean Piaget

Here is a child, who, in his desire to please, happens to break something and is snubbed for his pains, or who in general sees his actions judged otherwise than he judges them himself.

It is obvious that after more or less brief periods of submission, during which he accepts every verdict, even those that are wrong, he will begin to feel the injustice of it all. Such situations can lead to revolt. But if, on the contrary, the child finds in his brothers and sisters or in his playmates a form of society which develops his desire for cooperation and mutual sympathy, then a new type of morality will be created in him, a morality of reciprocity and not of obedience.

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This is the true morality of intention and of subjective responsibility. Actually, of course, there are innumerable intermediate stages between these two attitudes of obedience and collaboration, but it is useful for the purposes of analysis to emphasize the real opposition that exists between them.

If children fail to understand one another, it is because they think they understand one another. The explainer believes from the start that the reproducer will grasp everything, will almost know beforehand all that should be known, and will interpret every subtlety.

Children are perpetually surrounded by adults who not only know much more than they do, but who also do everything in their power to understand them, who even anticipate their thoughts and desires.

It is obviously owing to this mentality that children do not take the trouble to express themselves clearly This mentality does not contradict ego-centric mentality. Both arise from the belief of the child, the belief that he is the centre of the universe. These habits of thought account The Language and Thought of the Child Tr. Marjorie and Ruth Gabain The discussion of the game of marbles seems to have led us into rather deep waters.

But in the eyes of children the history of the game of marbles has quite epistemologiw much importance as the history of religion or of forms of government. It Is a history, moreover, that is magnificently spontaneous; and it was therefore perhaps not entirely useless to seek to throw jan on the child’s judgment of moral value by a preliminary study of the social behaviour of children amongst themselves. In real life the child is in the presence, not of isolated acts, but of personalities that attract or repel him as a global whole.

He grasps people’s intentions by direct intuition and cannot therefore abstract from them. He allows, more or less justly, for aggravating and attenuating circumstances.

This is why the stories told by the children themselves often give rise to different evaluations from those suggested by the experimenter’s stories. Adult Constraint and Moral Realism p. Every observer has noted that the younger the child, the less sense he has of ggenetica own ego.

From the intellectual point of view, he does not distinguish between external and internal, subjective and objective. From the point of view of action, he yields to every suggestion, and if he does oppose to other people’s wills — a certain negativism which has been called “the spirit of contradiction” — this only points to pkaget real defenselessness against his surroundings.

A strong personality can maintain itself without the help of this particular weapon.

Epistemologia Genética Jean Piaget – video dailymotion

The adult and the older child have complete power over him. They impose their opinions and their wishes, and the child accepts them without knowing that he does so.

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Only — and this is the other side of the picture — as the child does not dissociate his ego from the environment, whether physical or social, he mixes into all his thoughts and all his actions, ideas and practices that are due to the intervention of his ego and which, just because he fails to recognize them as subjective, exercise a check upon his d socialization.

From the intellectual point of view, he mingles his own fantasies with accepted opinions, whence arise pseudo lies or sincere liessyncretism, and all the features of child thought.

From the point of jran of action, he interprets in his own fashion the examples he has adopted, whence the egocentric form of play we were examining above. The only way of avoiding these individual refractions would lie in true cooperation, such that both child and senior would each make allowance for his own individuality and for the realities that were held in common.

Motor Rules and the Two Kinds of Respect. Hence the very young child’s almost systematic romancing as with others and to which one cannot yet give the name of pseudo-lie, so close is the connection between primitive romancing and assertive belief.

Hence finally, the pseudo-lie, which is a sort of romancing used for other people, and serving to pull the child out of any straight due to circumstances, from which he deems it perfectly natural to extricate himself by inventing a story.

Just as, from the intellectual point of view the child will elude a difficult question by means of an improvised myth to which he will give momentary credence, so from the moral point of view, an embarrassing situation epistemologix give rise to a pseudo-lie. Nor does this involve anything more than an application of the general laws of primitive child thought, which is directed towards its own satisfaction rather than to objective truth.

As long as the child remains egocentric, truth as such will fail to interest him and he will see no harm in transposing facts in accordance with his desires.

Frases de Jean Piaget. What we know changes what we see. Henri Matisse 3 – Marshall McLuhan 9 – Maksim Litvinov 1 – Autores parecidos Lauro de Oliveira Lima 2.

Friedrich August von Hayek John Broadus Watson 1. Burrhus frederic Skinner 2.