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Kituba is a widely used lingua franca in Central Africa. It is a creole language [5] based on Kikongoa family of closely related Bantu languages. It is not entirely accurate to call Kituba a creole language as it lacks the distinction between superstrate and substrate influence that is typical of creole development. Kituba is known by many names among its speakers. In the Republic of Congo it is called Munukutuba or Kituba.

The former is a grammatically incorrect phrase which means literally “I to speak”.

The latter means simply “speech”. The name Kituba is used in the constitution of the Ditionnaire of Congo. In the Democratic Republic of the Congo it is called Kikongo ya leta i. Kikongo of the state administrationbut it is often called in short Kikongoespecially out of the region of ethnic Bakongo people.

The constitution of the Democratic Republic of Congo lists Kikongo as one of the national languages. In fact, it refers to Kikongo ya leta i. Kitubabecause a translation of the constitution itself dicitonnaire written in Kituba but no translation exists in Kikongo. There are also other historical names such as KibulamatadiKikwangoIkeleve literally: He is not hereand Kizabave but they have largely fallen out of use. In the academic circles the language is called Kikongo-Kituba.

The majority of Kituba speakers live in the Democratic Republic of Congo. Kituba is the largest language of the Republic of Congo. Lingala is more popular in the north. The status of Kituba in Angola is not known. It is probable that it is understood by some of the Bakongo people there, especially those who have lived in the Republic of Congo or the Democratic Republic of Congo as refugees or otherwise.

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In practice the term national language means that it is a language of regional administration dictinonaire elementary education. A national language is also one that is used for public and mass communication. National public radios and televisions in the Democratic Republic of Congo and in the Republic of Congo use Kituba as one of their main languages for evening news.

First Kituba developed downriver Congoan area which is dictionnairre by the Bakongo. There are several theories on how Kituba came into being. One theory claims that it had already evolved at the time ikkongo the Kongo Kingdom as a simplified interdialectal trade language, which the European colonists subsequently took into use for regional administration. Another theory claims that a simplified trade language called Kifyoti was developed at the Portuguese coastal trading 18 post and it was later spread upstream by the Christian missionaries to the kikpngo between the Kwango and the Dictionnalre rivers where it dicttionnaire further hence the name Kikwango.

Yet another theory emphasizes the construction of the Matadi – Kinshasa railroad at the end of the 19th century, which involved forced labour from West Africalower Congo, and the neighbouring Bandundu region. The workers had diverse linguistic backgrounds which gave birth to a grammatically simplified language.

Kituba language

Regardless of the genesis, Kituba has established itself in the large towns that were found during the colonial period between and A translation of the New Testament in Kituba was completed and published in Kituba has five vowel phonemes: They are very similar to the vowels of Spanish and Italian. Vowels are never reduced, regardless of stress. The vowels are pronounced as follows:. Kituba has subject and object pronouns. The object pronouns are used in place of subject pronouns when the subject is being emphasized.

Kituba has kept by and large the noun classes of ethnic Kikongo with some modifications. The classes 9 and 11 have in effect merged with the singular class with zero prefix, and their plural is formed with generic plural class prefix ba. Kituba has a well-developed verbal system involving grammatical tense and aspect. Most verb forms have long and short versions. The long forms are used in formal written communication whereas the short forms have developed for spoken communication.

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The irregular conjugation of the verb kuvanda or kuvuanda to be is presented in the table below. It is the only irregular verb in Kituba. All other verbs are conjugated with the help of auxiliary verbs.

Kituba language – Wikipedia

The conjugation of the verb kusala to do is presented in the table below. The suffix indicating voice is adding after the verb root and before the suffix indicating tense. The most common forms are “ila”, indicating action to or toward someone, and “ana”, indicating mutual or reciprocal action:. Sadisa “to help”, Sadisana “help one another”, Sadisanaka “helped one another past [7].

It is not widely available. The bulk of Kituba words come from Kikongo.

In addition, many words have been borrowed from FrenchPortugueseand Eictionnaire. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. This article includes a list of referencesbut its sources remain unclear because it has insufficient inline citations. Please help to improve this article by introducing more precise citations.

August Learn how and when to remove this template message. Editions LECO, p. Languages of the Democratic Republic of the Congo. Kongo Kituba Lingala Swahili Tshiluba.

Kikongo-Français, Français-Kikongo – Ghent University Library

Languages of the Republic of the Congo. Retrieved from ” https: Language articles citing Ethnologue 18 Articles lacking in-text citations from August All articles lacking in-text citations Language articles with old Ethnologue 18 speaker data Wikipedia articles needing clarification from July Wikipedia articles with SUDOC identifiers.

Views Read Edit View history. This page was last edited on 28 Decemberat By using this site, you agree to the Terms of Use and Privacy Policy. This article contains IPA phonetic symbols.

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