Kitti Köhler, Zsolt Gallina, Krisztina Somogyi, Eszter Bánffy, Christopher Bronk Ramsey, . Bátaszék-Malomréti-dűlő Ásatárs Ltd., led by Péter Hornok and Zsolt Gallina 4 11 (M6 Régészeti Tanulmányok Csalog József születé- sének Zsolt Gallina, Krisztina Somogyi, Eszter Bánffy, Christopher Bronk Ramsey, Tomasz Goslar Régészeti Tanulmányok Csalog József születé- sének Csalog Zsolt – Krisztina Ezzel ​hát kész volnék. Amíg írtam, egyfolytában kerülgetett a veszély: óhatatlanul belegondolok, mi lesz, ha készen leszek? Úgy tűnt.

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Skip to main content. Log In Sign Up. Bestellungen sind direkt an den Verlag zu richten. Studierende werden gebeten, ihre Bestellungen mit einer Studienbescheinigung an die Schriftleitung zu richten. Verlag Henrich Editionen, Frankfurt am Main — www. Lengyel burials and settlement Chronological summary. At its greatest extent, its settlements are found in western and north-east Hungary, south-west Slovakia, eastern Austria and the Czech Republic.

Its dis- tribution even reached Slovenia and Croatia in the south, and Poland in the north. It has been estimated that the entire site could have covered as many as 80 ha.

The traces of Lengyel occupation can be seen over the entire excavated area. For the purposes of analysis here the relevant parts are subsites11 and 10B fig. Ditch sections were observed and investigated at the outer limits of subsites 10B, 11, andto the north, south and east, respectively.

Subsite Subsite forms the eastern axis of the site area 6. A total of features were excavated in this area. From the Lengyel phase, nearly features including postholes associated with 26 houses and burials were recorded Grave Groups 42—59 csallog scat- tered gravescovering an area of over 6. The area can be divided into two parts: The eastern section was the most densely occupied in the Lengyel phase and, with the exception of a few LBK settlement pits in its western end, only Lengyel features were observed here.

Nearly features were excavated, covering 8. About recorded features could be assigned to the Lengyel period, among them 23 houses with postholes and burials Grave Groups 60—92 plus scattered graves. In the northern- most part of the area there were LBK occupation deposits, while the more southerly por- tion was relatively densely settled in the Lengyel period.

At the southernmost part of kriaztina site 11, a considerable number of features from the Cxalog Iron Age and Early Roman periods came to light.

Although a large number of excavated Lengyel burials were found in subsite 11, there were fewer buildings here than in 10B, though this might be due to circumstances of detection and survival.

On krisztnia 11 the most common features are the extremely large pits or pit complexes, which are found across the whole site, except at its northernmost end. They are thought to have been used as clay extraction pits, although some may have had a natural origin.

Several were investigated by test trenches, although due to the high groundwater level their full depth has not been established.

Similar large features were excavated in the southern part of subsitecontaining mixed finds of different periods. A total of features were excavated from all periods fig. From the Lengyel phase, nearly features including postholes associated with 71 houses and burials Grave Groups 1—41 plus scattered graves were recorded, covering about 9 ha.

This is the most densely filled portion of the site, in particular in the northernmost sections where the houses form rows and, in some cases, intercut one another, showing signs of both refurb- ishment and reconstruction.

The visibility and excavation of features in the southern part of 10B area 2 became increasingly problematic, largely due to high groundwater levels. Considerable numbers of krjsztina were excavated but many of these have simply been classified as indeterminate prehistoric, pending further evaluation of the ceramics.

Many fewer traces of Lengyel occu- pation were found in the southernmost portion of 10B, compared to its northern part. Burials and burial groups There were substantial changes in mortuary practices in the Late Neolithic period. The much lower number of burials in earlier periods compared to the Lengyel period is also striking.

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Burials and burial groups Fig. A selection of Lengyel culture grave groups. Grave Groups 14, 68, 52 and In the western area of Lengyel occupation, these regular forms of burial are not present at all. Although there are a few exceptions e. In some cases these groups are both compact and clearly separated from other groups, but in others they are rather diffuse and spatially overlap or merge. It should be noted that burials occurred at different depths, and those found higher up, often with- out detectable grave cuts or pits, were only recovered because of careful, deliberate search.

In many cases the high groundwater level made not just full excavation but also basic observation of graves impossible. In other cases graves were not visible at all because the colour of their fills was exactly the same as the topsoil, and only skeletal remains or grave goods turned over by the machine indicated the position of a burial.

A total of 92 grave groups have been identified. In practical terms, such classification is essential for handling the large number of graves and for easy identification of their loca- tion fig. On average there were 25—40 burials in a group for example, Grave Group 13with some as large as burials for example, Grave Group The overall extent was variable, but on average the groups are 15—40 m in diameter.

In a few instances many of the burials within a group even appeared to form rows for example, in Grave Group Some of the grave groups for example, Grave Group 56 were near a house and in seeming alignment with its long axis.

A selection of different grave pit forms from all subsites.

Clockwise from bottom krisztins Lengyel burials and settlement Fig. Burial from subsite 10B. Burial from subsite A number of graves were scattered csalob the site.

Additionally, many of these graves were cut or placed into the fills of pits that contained occupation debris from the settlement. Many of these, as observed in subsites and 10B, lacked grave goods and were placed with their faces pointing in a direction other than south.

The burials followed a more or less strict burial rite. Although slight differences were often noted in burial orientations, an overall coherence can be rkisztina. With the excep- tion of a few grave groups for example, Grave Groups 1 and 15the orientation of the burials was E—W, with the head to the east, but with faces to the south at least in subsite 10B and The dead kkrisztina laid to rest in a contracted position on their left side.

Some of the burials were found in higher soil layers without any detectable grave cut. The forms of the graves varied considerably figs 3—5. The most common were oval-shaped pits; there were some rounded zzolt pits. The overall level of furnishing of the graves is also highly variable. While graves with four-post constructions contained grave goods that are both greater in quantity and per- ceived value, within the cslog graves there is a large range, from completely unfurn- ished burials krisztija those that approach the scale of furnishing of the graves with four-post constructions.

A typical grave assemblage comprised 1—4 pots and perhaps a stone or bone tool. The pottery types are fairly varied csalpg shape and size, and do not differ markedly from the ceramic material of other south-east Transdanubian Lengyel burials. The most charac- teristic types are the bowls and their variants hollow-pedestalled bowlscups, biconical vessels, tripartite vessels and Butmir-type pots figs 4—5.

Among the more lavishly furnished burials, the artefacts include not only more pots, but often also polished and chipped stone tools such as axes, adzes and flint bladescopper ornaments and imported shell beads Spondylus and Dentalium. Dentalium shells often occurred in combination with copper beads, as necklaces or bracelets. Copper was used only for ornamentation in this period, mainly as arm rings, finger rings and necklaces combined with Dentalium beads fig.

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A selection of grave goods. Clockwise from left bottom: Lengyel burials and settlement Demography From the c. The evaluation of material from other subsites is ongoing, and that analysis will inevitably refine the view presented here.

Although the condition of the skeletal material is moderately poor, zzolt many fragmentary and incomplete bones, the exceptional volume of excavated burials has opened up new bioarchaeological and social-archaeological perspectives. This phenomenon could be explained by the poorer preservation of their smaller bones or by the use of shallow graves for child burials, which were then destroyed cszlog erosion, agricul- tural work or by the circumstances of rescue excavation.

Moreover, contrary to the expected values, the numbers of adult and mature individuals are almost equal This could be the result of selective mortuary practices, polygamy, and the death of males far from the community or to flaws in the traditional methods of sex determination. The analysis of the so-called hereditary anatomical variations in skeletal remains suggests relationships in a few cases in some zsilt groupsbut the demographic structure ob- served within several grave groups does not support this interpretation, because of the low ratio of children and the unequal sex and age proportions of the buried individuals found close together.

In part due to the differing excavation methods and soil conditions, the verification of possible kinship links within a probably incomplete grave group is not easy. Further progress in this issue can be expected from aDNA testing on a large sample of the skeletal material. Detailed palaeopathological zsoltt shows a relatively low incidence of trauma, non-spe- cific inflammations and degenerative articular diseases. As for haematological disorders, Cri- bra orbitalia occurred with a high incidence among children, which probably reflects iron deficiency in the diet.

Among the adults, the most frequent alterations were enthesopathic deformities, primarily on the calcaneum and on the patella, which are generally considered to be markers of more active lifestyle. Some rare and significant diseases occurred too. These include cases of benign tumour and of so-called pathological birth.

The classic deformation caused by tuberculosis on the vertebrae of burial from subsite 10B. Beside these cases, the most important malady is the occurrence of the infectious disease tuberculosis TB. The classic deformations were found on cxalog adult male skeleton buried in grave Grave Group The most characteristic alteration was observable be- tween the 4th lumbar and 10th thoracic vertebrae, where the vertebral bodies collapsed and fused fig.

TB is caused by bacterial species belonging to the Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex. This inves- tigation confirmed the occurrence of TB in the case of three further individuals.

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In the future, with the help of morphological and aDNA investiga- tions, which can specify which member of the Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex caused the spread of the disease, we may be able to answer more of a list of still open questions for example, whether human or animal bacterium infected the community, and how the disease can be connected to Neolithic lifeways, stock farming and the consumption of meat and milk.

Oral pathological examinations revealed a generally low frequency of carious lesions, al- veolar abscesses and cysts, which suggests adequate csaloog hygiene. However, the frequent appearance of dental cwalog suggests zdolt unpredictable food supply in early childhood.

There had previously been no isotopic investigations of the diet of Lengyel populations, and this is the first time that a large body of such evidence can be discussed see BAYLISS et al. Lengyel burials and settlement Settlement and subsistence Previous knowledge of Lengyel architecture was very patchy.