The climacteric is a stage of fruit ripening associated with increased ethylene production and a However, nonclimacteric melons and apricots exist, and grapes and strawberries harbour several active ethylene receptors. Climacteric is the. Methods Mol Biol. ; doi: /_7. Characterization of Climacteric and Non-Climacteric Fruit Ripening. Kou X(1), Wu . PDF | A bstract Fruit Ripening is a process wherein fruits become more edible or appetizing. The process of ripening includes several changes, such as texture.
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The maximum level of ethylene production is closely related to fruit ripening and storage potential in Asian pears. Friuts a previous study, we identified two markers A and B linked to high and moderate ethylene production during fruit ripening, respectively, by restriction fragment-length polymorphism analysis of two 1-aminocyclopropanecarboxylate ACC synthase genes PPACS1 and PPACS2. In this study, a total of cultivars were categorized into nonclimactfric marker types AB, Ab, aB, and ab ; types AB and Ab show high levels, aB a moderate level, and ab a low level of ethylene production during fruit ripening.
Climacteric Non-Climacteric Fruit
A large number of ab and aB cultivars but few AB and Ab cultivars were observed. It suggests that there has been a decrease in high ethylene producers by artificial selection because of short shelf life. The ab cultivars are a good genetic resource for production of new cultivars with a long shelf life.
Such information on marker types is useful for breeding strategies aimed at improving storage ability in Asian pears. In Pyrusthere are three major species, P. Chinese pearand P. Nashiwhich are commercially cultivated in temperate zones. The attributes that constitute good quality in one species may differ from that in another, as is the case with European and Asian pears. The attributes of European pears, for example, include its soft buttery texture, whereas those of Asian pears include its juicy and crisp flesh.
The most distinctive characteristic of Asian pears is the fact that they mature on the tree in contrast to European pears, which usually require exposure to chilling temperatures for initiation of ripening.
Pear fruits can be classified as climacteric or nonclimacteric according to their ripening characteristics. European pears are climacteric Jackson,whereas Asian pears are thought to include climacteric and nonclimacteric cultivars because climacteric type fruits showed a rise in respiration and ethylene production, and nonclimacteric-type fruit did not show a rise in respiration and ethylene production during fruit ripening Downs et al.
In Asian pears, climacteric-type fruits have a low storage potential, whereas nonclimacteric fruits maintain fruit quality for over 1 month in storage Itai et al. Therefore, fruit storage potential is closely related to the maximum level of ethylene production in Asian pears.
These markers are useful for predicting the ethylene levels of Asian pear cultivars and they enable identification of low ethylene producers with an enhanced postharvest storage ability. However, available information on ethylene production is limited to certain cultivars.
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Therefore, in the present study, we conducted CAPS analysis of cultivars using two ACC synthase genes to evaluate the ripening characteristics and to improve breeding and posthandling information on Asian pears.
A total of Asian pear cultivars including 35 previously climactdric cultivars were investigated. All cultivars were grown at the orchard of Tottori University, Japan.
About mg of leaf material was ground in liquid nitrogen using a mortar and pestle and the powder was then transferred to a 1. The mixed solution was centrifuged at 15, g a for 10 min and the supernatant was then discarded and the pellet was resuspended in 1 mL of the same washing buffer.
This washing step was repeated three times to remove polysaccharides and polyphenols. The supernatant was transferred to a new tube to which an equal volume of 2-propanol was added and the DNA was then precipitated and recentrifuged. Identification of marker A was analyzed by the presence Fig. Bands indicated by arrows, A and B, are specific clkmacteric cultivars that climafteric high and moderate levels of ethylene during fruit ripening, respectively.
The following primers were used fruiits classification of marker B of PPACS2which is linked to moderate ethylene production: After staining with ethidium bromide, gels were observed and photographed under ultraviolet light.
Identification of marker B was examined by the presence Fig. Based on the presence or absence of polymorphic fragments, cultivars were classified into one of four groups: AB, Ab, aB or ab. The correlations between groups and rates of ethylene production were identified previously Itai et al.
Marker types of a total of cultivars, including 35 cultivars previously identified by RFLP analysis Itai et al. Overall, 15, 23, 53, and 61 cultivars were shown to belong to groups AB, Fruitd, aB, and ab, respectively. A large number of group ab and aB cultivars were listed, but only a small number of AB and Ab cultivars.
These data suggest that there has been a decrease in high ethylene producers nonclimcateric type of AB or Ab over the years because of climatceric low storage ability. Despite the development of refrigeration systems, our data indicate that cultivation of cultivars with a short shelf life is still problematic, with cultivars having a long storage potential being preferred.
Marker types representative of ethylene synthesis during fruit ripening in Asian pear cultivars. Hybridization between ab cultivars results in seedlings with low ethylene during fruit climacyeric.
If the breeding objective is to increase storage ability, ab cultivars are a good genetic resource for production of new cultivars with a long shelf life. Most Asian climacteri cultivars are susceptible to scab Venturia nasicolawhich, along with black spot, is one of the most prevalent diseases affecting P.
To date, four molecular markers including ours have been associated with self-incompatibility, black nonclimactrric Alternaria alternata Japanese pear pathotypescab, and fruit ethylene production Banno et al.
Thus, these markers can be used for marker-assisted selection of these four traits.
In conclusion, measurement of maximum ethylene production is a complex task because determining the accurate time of fruit ripening in Asian pears is often problematic. As a result, underestimation often occurs when using fruits harvested earlier than the optimum date.
Our CAPS analysis is a rapid and accurate method for predicting relative levels of ethylene production and gaining posthandling information. Furthermore, information on marker types enables the identification of cultivars for hybridization aimed at enhancing shelf life in Asian pear breeding.
This study was partially supported by Grants-in-Aid Nos. User Name Password Sign In. Previous Section Next Section. In this window In a new window. Respiration and ethylene production in reference to species and cultivars of pear fruit. This Article HortScience February vol. Services Email this article to a colleague Similar articles in this journal Similar articles in Web of Science Download to citation manager.
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