Scientific Name: Bungarus candidus (Linnaeus, ) Taxonomic Notes: Bungarus javanicus is considered to be a melanistic form of B. candidus (see Kuch. Envenoming by kraits (genus Bungarus) is a medically significant issue in South Asia and Southeast Asia. Malayan krait (Bungarus candidus). BACKGROUND: Bungarus candidus (Malayan krait) snake is a neurotoxin snake . Previous treatment after snakebite was mainly respiratory support until the.
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General Shape Medium in length, slender, cylindrical bodied snake with a short tail ending in a sharp tip. Can grow to a maximum of about 1. Head is flat and slightly distinct from neck.
Eyes are small in size and black with a barely visible, round pupils. Dorsal scales are smooth and glossy with the vertebral row enlarged and hexagonal. Dorsal scale count 15 17 – 15 – Habitat Lowland hilly primary and secondary wet forest at elevations usually up to about metres. Rarely found in human habitations. Habits Nocturnal and terrestrial snake with an inoffensive disposition.
When disturbed it coils loosely and hides its head beneath its body.
Reluctant to bite except upon persistent provocation. Prey Feeds mainly on snakes, but will occasionally feed on small mammals, lizards and bungarux. Small Approx 20k version. Venom Other Not present or not significant. Dangerousness Severe envenoming likely, high lethality potential. General Systemic Effects Variable non-specific effects which may include headache, nausea, vomiting, abdominal pain, diarrhoea, dizziness, collapse or convulsions.
Neurotoxic Paralysis Very common, flaccid paralysis is major clinical effect. First aid for bites by Elapid snakes which do not cause significant injury at the bite site see Comments for partial listingbut which may have the potential to cause significant general systemic effects, such as paralysis, muscle damage, or bleeding.
After ensuring the patient and onlookers have moved out of range of further strikes by the snake, the bitten person should be reassured and persuaded to lie down and remain still.
Many will be terrified, fearing sudden death and, in this mood, they may behave irrationally or even hysterically. The basis for reassurance is the fact that bungarys venomous bites do not result in envenoming, the relatively slow progression to severe envenoming hours following elapid bites, days following viper bites and the effectiveness of modern medical treatment. The bite wound should not be tampered with in any way. Wiping it once with a damp cloth to remove surface venom is unlikely to do much harm or good but the wound must not be massaged.
For Australian snakes only, do not wash or clean the wound in any way, as this may interfere with later venom detection once in a hospital. All rings or other jewellery on the bitten limb, especially on fingers, should be removed, as they may act as tourniquets if oedema develops.
If the bite is on a limb, a broad bandage even torn strips of clothing or pantyhose should be applied over the bitten area at moderate pressure as for a sprain; not so tight circulation is impairedthen extended to cover as much of the bitten limb as possible, including fingers or toes, going over the top of clothing rather than risking excessive limb movement by removing clothing.
The bitten limb should then be immobilised as effectively as possible using an extemporised splint or sling. If there is any impairment of vital functions, such as problems with respiration, airway, circulation, heart function, these must be supported as a priority. In bungatus, for bites causing ubngarus paralysis, including respiratory paralysis, both airway and respiration may be impaired, requiring urgent and prolonged treatment, which may include the mouth to mask mouth to mouth technique of expired air transfer.
Seek urgent medical attention. Do not use Tourniquets, cut, suck or scarify the wound or apply chemicals or electric shock.
Specific antivenom for Bungarus candidus.
Avoid peroral intake, absolutely no alcohol. No sedatives outside hospital. If there will be considerable delay before reaching medical aid, measured in several hours to days, then give clear fluids by mouth to prevent dehydration. If the offending snake has been killed it should be brought with the patient vungarus identification only relevant in areas where there are more than one naturally occurring venomous snake speciesbut be careful to avoid touching the head, as even a dead snake can envenom.
No attempt should be made to pursue the snake into the undergrowth as this will risk further bites.
The snakebite victim should be transported as quickly and as passively as possible to the nearest place where they can be seen by a medically-trained person health station, dispensary, clinic or hospital. The bitten bunfarus must not be exercised as muscular contraction will promote systemic absorption of venom.
If no motor vehicle or boat is available, the patient can be carried on a stretcher or hurdle, on the pillion or crossbar of a bicycle or on someone’s back. Most traditional, and many of the more recently fashionable, first aid measures are useless and potentially dangerous.
Malayan Krait – Blue Krait | Bungarus candidus | Highly Toxic Venom | ThailandSnakes
These include local cauterization, incision, excision, amputation, suction by mouth, vacuum pump or syringe, combined incision and suction “venom-ex” apparatusinjection or instillation of compounds such as potassium permanganate, phenol carbolic soap and trypsin, application of electric shocks or ice cryotherapyuse of traditional herbal, folk and other remedies including the ingestion of emetic plant products and parts of the snake, multiple incisions, tattooing and so on.
Antivenom available for major species, may prevent worsening of paralysis, but may not reverse established paralysis. Antivenom Therapy Only antivenoms available are for related species, but should be used for significant envenoming. The principle aim of this site is to provide information useful to improving outcomes for humans suffering from envenoming or poisoning by animals, plants or mushrooms.
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Malayan Krait – Blue Krait | Bungarus candidus | Highly Toxic Venom
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