PORT WORKS DESIGN MANUAL PART 2Guide to Design of Piers and Dolphins Civil Engineering Office Civil Engineering Department The Government. Find the most up-to-date version of BS at Engineering Buy BS Maritime works. Code of practice for the design of quay walls, jetties and dolphins from SAI Global.
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Maritime works — Part 2: Code of practice for the design of quay walls, jetties and dolphins. A list of organizations represented on this committee can be obtained on request to its secretary. Relationship with other publications BS is published in the following parts: Code of practice for the design of 649-2 ramps, linkspans and walkways.
Information about this document The start and inish of text introduced or altered by Corrigendum No. This is a full revision of the standard, and introduces the following principal changes: The titles of the other parts will be changed as revisions or amendments are published. The availability of the completed Eurocode suite means that there is now guidance on the design of geotechnical structures and foundations based on limit state techniques, so there is now no need within this part of 634-92 to draw attention to the need 63499-2 interface limit state and working stress design techniques.
It should not be quoted as if it were a speciication and particular care should be taken to ensure that claims of compliance are not misleading. Any user claiming compliance with this part of BS is expected to be able to justify any course of action that deviates from its recommendations. It has been assumed in the preparation of this British Standard that the execution of its provisions will be entrusted to appropriately qualiied and experienced people, for whose use it 649-2 been produced.
Presentational conventions The provisions in this standard are presented in 63499-2 i. Commentary, explanation and general informative material is presented in smaller italic bss, and does not constitute a normative element. Contractual and legal considerations This publication does not purport to include all the necessary provisions of a contract.
Users are responsible for its correct application. Compliance with a British Standard cannot confer immunity from legal obligations.
For dated references, only the edition cited applies. For undated references, the latest edition of the referenced document including any amendments applies. Code of practice for the design, construction bbs maintenance of straight stairs and winders BSCode of practice for earthworks BS Code of practice for general criteria BSMaritime structures — Part 4: Code of practice for design of fendering and mooring systems BS Code of practice for dredging and land reclamation BSMaritime 63492 — Part 8: ICE speciication for piling and embedded retaining walls.
Thomas Telford Ltd, NOTE A relieving platform is usually supported on the retaining wall. Planning matters are discussed ba this clause in so far as they might inluence the design.
Guidance on overall port planning is given in references [1—5]. As part of this process, the various parts of the structure should be zoned for different types of use, and the actions to be supported by each zone should be determined.
A risk assessment should be performed to identify hazards and any actions that might result from these hazards, 6349–2 any accidental actions. It should also deine the strategy for operation and maintenance, including the time for which it is acceptable for the berths to be out of action while maintenance operations are taking place.
NOTE If the risk assessment shows that a hazard can be mitigated by suitable sb controls, then it might not be necessary to design the structure speciically to accommodate the actions arising from that hazard.
NOTE One way of doing this is to make use of ill from other dredging operations being carried out in the port. Depending upon the suitability of the dredged material, the actions applied to berth structures can vary considerably. Some dredged material will gs inferior in quality, and a balance needs to be struck between the environmental needs and the stability of the structure. Maintenance dredging might become necessary because of the natural accretion of material or because of a build-up of material dropped between the ship and the berth during ns handling of bulk cargo, such as coal.
There might be beneits 649-2 providing a dredged depth greater than the minimum required, so that maintenance dredging with its disruption to operations is reduced. Account should be taken of the dredging tolerances which will be achieved during construction and during maintenance dredging see 4. Dolphins should be provided ns necessary, e. NOTE 1 Dolphins can be used to resist the berthing and mooring actions, thereby permitting a lighter form of structure to be used for the quay or jetty platform itself.
This is particularly applicable to bulk terminals serving oil tankers, very large crude carriers VLCCsliquid natural gas LNG carriers or other bulk vessels where maximum horizontal loads are severe and imposed vertical loads are light.
BS Maritime works. Code of practice for the design of quay walls, jetties and dolphins
Speciic recommendations for dolphins are given in Clause 9 and BS NOTE 2 The need for the berth to be contiguous with the ba, the apron width required, and the area of land required behind the berth are all matters which depend on the type of method of handling and storing the cargo. Bulk cargo might require extensive areas of land for storage, but this can be some distance inland with the bulk cargo transferred from berth to tank farm, silo, storage shed or open storage area by pipe or conveyor.
Conversely, the area behind a general cargo or container berth is an integral part of the whole, and the movement of cargo from ship to transit shed or open storage needs to be direct and as short as sb The need to provide an area of land behind a berth often involves reclamation b this can have a strong inluence on the type of marginal structure to be adopted.
The planning of such measures for new structures should take into account the safety measures already in place in the existing parts of the port, and any that are required by the risk assessment 4. Depending upon the nature of the cargo to be handled, pollution prevention or mitigating equipment might be required.
Where hazardous cargo is handled, such as in VLCC and oil and oil product terminals, LNG and LPG and chemical carrier terminals and similar bulk carrier berths, speed-of-approach monitoring aids and mooring line force measurement aids should be provided. In addition, where required, wave, current, wind and water level monitors should be provided.
At all maritime terminals at least one tide gauge should be provided. Easy access to the loading platform and dolphins should be provided for normal operations e.
NOTE 2 In some circumstances, it is not necessary to gs ixed access facilities to parts which bz only irregular maintenance. If ixed access facilities are provided, they will also need to be maintained. Where cold products are handled, cold splash protection should be provided where necessary for protection of the structural elements. At areas at risk of ire, passive ire protection measures might be required in addition to the active ire monitoring system.
NOTE 3 These can include 63492 stanchions on the loading platform directly supporting product lines and heavy equipment such as the loading arms. The orientation should further be selected such that the structure hs least detrimental effect on the coastal or estuarial regime. NOTE 1 A physical or mathematical model might be necessary to study these effects. NOTE 2 The 66349-2 orientation of the berth can also be affected by an optimization between ns capital costs of investment and costs of operational down-time.
Berths should not, in general, be broadside-on to strong prevailing winds and waves. In all cases the navigational and cargo handling aspects should be taken into account see BS The direction of the current at tidal locations will usually vary. The importance of the effects of current on navigation will depend on the strength 634-2 the current, the availability of tugs, the loading condition of the ships and whether movements are restricted by tide levels. Offsetting currents can help a ship to leave the berth but might be unacceptable if a fully laden ship has to berth against them.
In 639-2 where unacceptable currents cannot be avoided, bss should be redirected by the use of training walls. The direction from which vessels will approach the 63449-2 should be taken into account. If they are always to lie alongside in the same direction e. The nature of the bed, the amount of solids in suspension in the water, existing current directions and velocities and the existing pattern of littoral drift all need to be examined and bz sensitivity to the orientation of the structure studied.
In addition to the effects on the overall regime, the local effects should be examined for unacceptable current changes, local scour or siltation of the seabed at the berth.
Abrupt changes in proile might create suficient disturbance to affect the structure and possibly navigation in the vicinity. These factors should all be taken into account when determining the orientation of the berth.
Where the berth is one of a number in a line, the expected mix of vessels using the line of berths should be taken into account. Ns minimum distance of 15 m between vessels is 649-2 adopted, but this should be increased as necessary according to the vs of the vessels and the 66349-2 of 63492- berth. For ishing or pleasure craft, a berth length of 1.
The length of berth structure that needs to be in contact with a vessel depends on the type of vessel and type of cargo to be handled. General cargo ships and many dry bulk cargo ships need a long berth face so that cargo handling equipment can have access to work any hold.
Alternatively, a short berth face and ixed handling equipment may be provided, requiring the vessels to be moved along the berth. Bulk liquids and solids such as cement, which can be moved pneumatically by pipeline, are loaded and discharged from a ixed point, and the berth face need only be long enough to accommodate these. If shipping patterns show that ships using the berth are never at full draught, a reduced depth might be acceptable. Allowances for any expected overdredge and underkeel clearance should be gs in the design.
NOTE 1 To reduce the amount of dredging needed at the time of initial construction, it is common to design a berth for a greater depth of water than is initially required.
An appropriate allowance should be made for both capital and maintenence dredging tolerances. Where appropriate, protection should be provided against scour caused by propellers and bow thrusters 4. With a virgin site, the level of the cope should be set on practical grounds.
NOTE 1 A low cope might be appropriate at berths exclusively used by small craft.
For certain types of deep sea Ro-Ro berths, the cope level might need to be lower than normal. It is also possible that the existing cope level in a port has been found to be unsatisfactory for some reason. The following factors should be taken into account when determining the optimum cope level: At cargo berths within an impounded dock, the ground surface should be at least 1. For a berth in an open harbour or exposed location, a statistical analysis should be prepared to determine the level and frequency of high water levels and wave heights.
NOTE 2 The application of joint probability methods for computing extreme sea levels is described in the article Estimates of extreme sea conditions — Final report . Whether the berth is 634-92 specialized or multi-purpose use will largely inluence the apron width required.
Modern general cargo berths with transit sheds on the berth require a distance between berth face and shed of 20 m to 50 m. For certain specialized cargo such as ish, apron widths may be reduced to minimize handling, depending on the handling methods.
Passenger and naval berths will also have different apron width requirements. In the case of container terminals, the whole of the land area is usually open, and distances from the berth face to the rear boundary are often in the range of m to m.