MARSHALL BERMAN: RESÚMENES SELECCIONADOS: COLECCIÓN Hemos resumido lo esencial de los siguientes textos: “Brindis por la Modernidad” , “La. Marshall Berman, “Brindis por la modernidad,” In El debate modernidad/ Posmodernidad, edited by Nicolás Casullo, 67–91 (Argentina: El cielo por asalto, . La modernidad ha unido a toda la humanidad de manera paradójica; Berman, Marshall (), “Brindis por la modernidad”, en Nicolas Casullo, El.

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Skip to main content. Log In Sign Up. Cosmopolitanism, cubism and new art: Print Online Journal homepage: Latin American Itineraries Diana B. Latin American Itineraries, Art in Translation, 3: Submit your article to this journal Article views: Photocopying permitted by licence only. Latin American Diana B. Wechsler plurality of networks of artists and cultural scenes on both sides of the Atlantic.

Although the author is very well known for her contribution to the understanding of Modernity in Latin America through numerous articles and books that pre-dated this text, this introduction is an outstanding example of her originality in interrogating Modernity in visual culture.

Cosmopolitanism, Cubism and New Art: In the words of Eugenio Carmona, modernidqd of the show Cubism and its Environment, Cubism should rather be seen as: Cubism had the property mdoernidad anaclasis in the Aristotelian sense, like a prism whose refracted light changes direction but retains an essential link to the original beam.

The ability of Cubism to change from within was unique in its time. Although it may seem perhaps excessive to undertake an examination of most of the refraction phenomena that resulted from Cubism, this concept must guide any complex modern understanding of Cubism and any attempt to create a Cubist painting collection that is neither parochial nor dogmatic.

Based on this suggestive curatorial proposal, we propose to raise some questions about modern art at the time of Cubism, seen as a vast process of exchange and migration. To begin, I will give some coordi- nates from which to reassess several features of Latin American art in the first decades of the twentieth century. About the artists at the Petit Palais, he said: It is no longer about using color in the most strange and difficult manner.

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It is relief, it is volume, it is the density of bodies that cubes are supposed to represent! Imagine cubes of different colors, juxta- posed and superposed, representing houses, landscapes or women. There was resistance to the new art in the European press too.

Thus, inwe see the emergence of an early debate on modern art in the cultural metropolises, like those on the River Plate. When the new art is shown in different cities during the s, the poor un- derstanding of the exhibited works is often related to Cubism and the other new art forms.

There are two kinds of artists: It was not the first time that Downloaded by [ Several press reviews stressed the market success of the Spanish artist: If during the s the debate hinged on visual elements, on the construction of the image, in the s aesthet- ics was connected to politics. Wechsler of the region.

Marshall Berman –

Both dates can also be used to frame the presence of Brinris American artists in Paris and other European modern art scenes, their artistic development, and their relationship to Cubism. Span- ish, Italian, French and the appearance of training and promotion in- stitutions, art criticism, etc.

It was the time of the modern debate, with local variations. Particularly in Latin America, this debate had other dimensions, such as the development marsuall a national and regional identity that placed Downloaded by [ It is possible then to affirm that the modern debate on the visual arts took place within the process of integration of the Latin American metropolises in a wider modern proj- ect, connecting different cultural spaces through a process of exchange that could be called, already in the s, a globalized modern culture.


For this reason, the title of this essay includes in succession the terms: As Marshall Berman has suggested, this mod- ern project has to be seen as an integral and integrative process. But the process is not homogeneous, as he seems to suggest.


Here I propose to attempt a reading of Modernity and of modern art as a process of co-production, of convergence, shaped by the par- ticipation of actors and cultural scenes from different latitudes. And in order to do so, I deem it necessary to question the artistic historiography of that period. Thus, we should revise the construction of the historio- graphical account of modern art in order to resituate within it the Latin American itineraries.

I propose to envision these Latin American itineraries within the conceptual space provided by migrations, images, texts, persons, and ideas, in order of reflect on the contemporary dynamics. Wechsler on what he would later call creationism, a notion that he would develop in his writings and public appearances.

Years later he said: In fact, not only in their imagination, but that Downloaded by [ Back to Huidobro, he quickly found his place in relation to other artists from different origins, as did Rivera. The same applies to the itin- eraries of other migrants to Paris and other European metropolises: Born in the Vilnius ghetto and trained in Berlin and Dresden, Segall was a member of the Secession and of the Expressionist groups. He moved to Germany first, then within Germany and finally to Paris. But his no- madism also had a peculiar feature: A great deal of activity took place in these cities, berma with the circulation of cultural and symbolic goods, which attracted people from the most diverse and remote geographical backgrounds: Large cities highlight differences, giving a special focus to language and to the notion of the other.

In fact, language is then perceived in a to- tally different way, it becomes denaturalized, an object of reflection. I modernidae that we focus on these transfers between metropolises and that we call into question the accounts, the interpretation, self-representation, and representation of Downloaded by [ Elements for a Different History of Modern Art Crossing over borders, penetrating other worlds and other languages, incorporating brindiw experiences, interacting with other artists and in- tellectuals because exceptional things were happening in those metro- politan spaces, things that had to be experienced there, these are the keys that explain travel in the biographies of Latin American artists.

More or less compulsively, they filled their libraries with magazines, books, catalogs, and postcards, any printed material to stay informed of what was happening on the other side of the ocean. The overlapping of the itineraries they followed reveals certain meet- ing points within each of the cities of choice: This com- munity makes it possible to identify, at least within the two decades that are the focus of this essay, a certain recurrence, through which we can imagine encounters and exchanges, and establish networks linking art- ists from Argentina, Spain, France, Chile, Belgium, Mexico, Lithuania, Brazil, Uruguay And thus, besides discovering the other, they can also discover themselves.

Rivera mentions Madrid as the first stop in his itinerary, between Downloaded by [ He would marshal, join the ranks of the new art, but his itinerary had begun a year before, when he arrived in Milan from Montevideo. Then he moved to Paris, where he came into contact with Cubist and Futurist painting.

Later he moved to Barcelona and then he decided to walk to Madrid, although he spent a year in Saragossa. He went to Madrid inwhere he could debate the new art with Ultraists like De Torre, the Borges brothers, De la Serna, and others.

In other cases he was also rejected, along with his colleagues. For example, he and Marusig were excluded from the Biennale di Brera that took place the same year. Instead, they exhibited their work bindis the Milan Famiglia Artistica, which had great impact on the press.

What does this exhibition prove? See for yourself two paintings by Pettoruti in the large room, their artistic strength, their confident use of color, it is seri- ous and refined work. He designed his strategy using different resources: He achieved his goal and had a great impact. His return was a suc- cess and was included in the canon of art history as the most signifi- cant event in the emergence of the first avant-garde in Argentina. His colleagues Curatella Manes and Xul Solar also came back in the former remained in Paris, but had an individual exhibition in Berkan nos Aires.


Their shows added btindis the impact that the new art had in Buenos Aires. Wechsler More travelers bedman arriving in Europe.

betman Some Chilean artists came to Paris and joined Huidobro, who in had laid the foundation stone for artistic disobedience in Santiago de Chile with his procla- mation: Like mdernidad many other artists, he found in the free ateliers the resources he needed to develop a new perspective: However, their training went beyond the in- stitutional spaces: Rego exhibited there for the first time inand his show gave him visibility among the public receptive to modern art, and among the artists, poets, and intellectuals who were already promoting it: Other Brazilian artists were already there: The map of the modern metropolises did not include one- marsnall routes, a factor that becomes increasingly clear as we advance in our investigation.

Coda So far we have proposed some elements for a revision of the traditional account of modern art, by looking at the itineraries of several Latin American artists during the s. The situation continues in the s, reinforced by the circulation, not just of individual artists, but also of works, texts, contacts, and mzrshall between both sides of the At- lantic. A detailed enumeration of these movements, from the s and s, will help to support our thesis.

The backroom catalog of the Zak gallery in Paris in the second half of the s included young artists from Spain, Marshal, and Mexico, among others.

Juan Del Prete arrived in Paris in and joined the Abstraction-Creation group in his first exhibi- tion in the city. Wechsler A few years before, the Mexican Diego Rivera had incorporated Cubist aesthetics into his work, from his national perspective.

InSiqueiros launched the magazine Vida Americana in Barcelona. Paris was the epicenter, but, as we said before, other spaces brinds held an attraction.

Apart from a list of artists from different areas who came to the cultural centers, we could add more evidence to sup- port the hypothesis that Paris, cultural metropolis, attracted artists and intellectuals from different latitudes, a notion often repeated in the his- toriography of modern art.

But we propose to go a little further. For some reason, an interest- ing fact has often been ignored both in the biographies of the artists and in the construction of the narratives of modern art both in Latin America and in Europe: A close reading of the facts, along with a new examination of archi- val material and other sources hitherto ignored or not studied in this light, suggests a more active and dialectic process involving the circula- tion of images and people from different areas.

Thus, it could be said that these brief migrations—or not so brief in some cases—of artists and intellectuals to Paris and other centers, are important not only because of the impact they had on the lives of these Latin American travelers, but also in terms of the effect that their presence had within these active cultural centers.

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Finally, the works in the Telefonica Cubist collection provide visual confirmation of the shared experiences, the presences, the movements, the differential adoption, and the explorations that took place in the s and the s, around the set of problems posed by Cubism, by calling into question the basis for visual representation prevalent in the West since the Renaissance.

Cosmopolitanism, Cubism and New Art 83 A comparison of the still lifes by Juan Gris and Pettoruti and those by Blanchard, Lhote, Mezinger, Barradas, Gontcharova, and Exter, for example, reveals a number of similarities in the use of the plane, the simultaneous points of view, and, in some cases, their palette.

We can also see the alternative routes they followed: IX Buenos Aires, Octoberpp. Biblioteca de Ayacucho, pp.