La chaîne de l’énoncé qui pourrait être figurée par un axe «O—X» du fait de son de l’axe syntagmatique admet un élément de l’axe paradigmatique concerné. un système de signes, un ensemble de relations analysables sur deux axes, l’ axe syntagmatique et l’axe associatif (appelé aujourd’hui paradigmatique). ou implicitement en relation avec d’autres éléments sur l’axe paradigmatique. la réalisation lexicale d’une place syntaxique définie sur l’axe syntagmatique.

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In natural languages the metalinguistic function is realized in two principal ways: We will demonstrate that, between these two kinds of constructions, it is only by metalanguage that it is possible to describe objects.

This paper proposes an archeology of doing in order to establish the operations that are accomplished to lead a description. The starting point to reconstruct this relation between metalanguage and methodology is a letter that Ferdinand de Saussure writes to Syntagmatoque Meillet. In this correspondence, Saussure shows a complementary way to the terminological one. By indicating a failure on the metalinguistic field, he suggests to supplement an epistemology of metalanguage by an epistemology of doing.


Some years later, Hjelmslev improve the saussurian position, by integrating to the metalanguage the procedures and the operations.

Despite its logic implanting, the theory of Danish linguist remains one of these uncommon theories that proposes a reflection on the methodological status of semiolinguistics.

Instead of a static typology, we defend here the diachronic dimension of metalanguage.

Éléments de sémiologie – Persée

We observe that, since its birth, semiotics constructed an articulation of evolutionary analysis categories of its metasystem. Any application must be measured with this network of categories.

So, following Hjelmslev, we propose of metalanguage a diachronic and applicative definition, which is, at the same time, more realistic. If semiotics syntagmaique two axes, the system and the processmetasemiotics must be characterised by the same opposition: On this basis, for each examined theory, we compare different descriptive theories to indicate the existence of an operational time for the application.

So we can distinguish different modes of existence of praadigmatique object during the description. Finally, we show that the application procedure requires some other adjustments between theory and object.

The applications, ultimately, test the descriptive power of the theory: If the adequacy operation has some impacts on the metasystem articulation, this is because the singularities, which are found in the object, can be generalised to other objects or extended to other classes of objects. This reflection ends by some observations about logic governance of the adequacy and by a typology of syntagamtique derived from these models: Au fond, comme le rappelle Hjelmslev, toute science modifie la langue paradigmatiqur pour y introduire ses termes techniques: Cette position permet de mieux comprendre ce qui arrive pendant la progression de la lecture.


File:Métaphore schéma axes syntagmatique et paradigmatiquesvg – Wikimedia Commons

G reimasAlgirdas-J. G uillaumeGustaveT emps et verbe.

Prolegomena to a Theory of LanguageSuppl. Travaux du Cercle linguistique de Copenhague, vol. Copenhague, Nordisk Sprogog Kulturforlag.

WhitfieldFrancis J. ZinnaAlessandroLe interfacce degli oggetti di scritturaRome, Meltemi. FontanilleLimoges, Pulim, Sommaire – Document suivant. Des parties de cette intervention, dont le Table des illustrations Titre Fig.