API publications necessarily address problems of a general nature. With respect to particular circumstances, local, state, and federal laws and regulations. Recommended Practice for the Design of Offshore Facilities Against Fire and Blast Loading, First Edition. American Petroleum Institute (API) First Edition, April 76p. This document provides guidelines and recommended practice for the satisfactory design of.

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This document recommends minimum requirements and guidelines for the design and installation of electrical systems on fixed and floating petroleum facilities located offshore. However large masses such as vessels commonly seen on topsides will significantly change the equivalent stiffness and mass adopted and therefore the corresponding 22fb. This is of relevance to the offshore sector in relationship to FPSO’s where potentially larger gas cloud sizes could form due to space constraints.

Other valuable documents include the Norsok standards and the GEE JIP rrp which resulted in the publication of an important handbook. If an installation is one that is in a high risk category which is relying heavily on ductility, this is the only technique aapi, if the model is extensive enough, can capture the interaction between the structural members and the true ductility of the structural system.

The advantages of adopting this methodology based on SRA approach are deemed to be well-suited for bidding phase, where the time and cost of carrying out detailed risk analysis is not feasible.

This can potentially lead to larger gas cloud sizes as they would not be limited by the volume of the module as on a fixed topside. Fire and Explosion Guidance Part 1: The nature of the threat varies significantly with inventory detail, level of confinement and congestion which is almost always present ali North Sea layouts.

This Recommended Practice is intended to serve as a guide to crane owners and operators in developing operating and maintenance practices and procedures for use in the safe operation of pedestal-mounted revolving cranes on fixed or oating offshore platforms, jacku Log in to your subscription Username.

It emphasizes the need to train 2bf in fire fighting, to conduct routine drills, and to esta Some examples of this 2fn the common practice of sniping secondary beams to minimise weld distortions when attached to webs of plate girders as part of the deck.

Nature of threat The potential for an accidental release of a hydrocarbon mixture is ever present on hydrocarbon carrying installations and, if ignited, could lead to a apk incident involving loss of life, loss of the asset and environmental damage.

Fire and Explosion Guidance Part 0: This policy should have no impact for new installations as designs should incorporate the required regulatory and technical principles.

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Ongoing operational safety shall be demonstrated by appropriate design capacity in conjunction with an appropriate integrity management system to ensure degradation is kept within acceptable limits. International Journal of Impact EngineeringVol. This also changes if modifications made to the structure increase inventories. Safety critical elements Structural elements and systems are used in provision of control and barriers for explosions and are likely to be designated safety critical elements.


Proceedings of an International Conference Submersible Technology: Full scale tests on realistic modules and congestion confinement levels carried out on joint industry projects have shown that the severity of the threat is more 2fg and complex than originally envisaged.

However what is certainly not simple is the way in which the actual structure is converted into a single spring and a mass which in general requires good engineering judgement and a certain degree of experience. Application of such methodology would also provide benefits to the operators in receiving quick and reliable fire protection cost estimate.

Health and Safety Executive. Far higher pressures have been measured in testing, capable of causing serious structural damage similar to that which led to an escalation of events on Piper Alpha. However for existing installations remedial measures may be required to demonstrate robustness of the installation and changes to inventory profile may also require some remedials.

Post Piper, several bars of pressure were found to be a real possibility with realistic levels of congestion and confinement.

You can visit our cookie privacy page for more information. Retrofit of barriers usually blast walls to existing installations plays a major part in reducing the risk and achieving ALARP criteria for accidental explosion events.

Introduction Industrial scale fire, explosion and environmental pollution from the production, refining, and distribution of petroleum remains one of the major concerns impacting human life and environment, incurring business losses and jeopardizing organizational reputation. The most prominent leak scenarios for the study were considered as a part of the simplified approach in lieu of considering exhaustive scenario combinations based on different leak sizes, weather ap, leak directions, etc.

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In some cases this can lead to ignoring the low probability high consequence events. The latest industry based guidance which is currently in use is the API Recommended Practice 2FB for design of offshore facilities against fire and blast loading.

Previous research has shown that as the gas cloud increases a runaway length can be reached at which point the overpressure increases significantly. However the QRA process is quite complex and can be demanding which tends to limit the QRA by concentrating on representative scenarios. Care is required in converting back to the actual structure to ensure the additional stresses are captured, particularly at support locations of both the beam and at equipment support points Non-linear finite element analysis The most complex and extensive structural modelling process adopted is the finite element method which can potentially capture all of the non-linear material and geometric behaviour together with the dynamics.


This document provides guidelines and recommended practice for the satisfactory design of offshore structures against fire and blast loading. Industrial scale fire, explosion and environmental pollution from the production, refining, and distribution of petroleum remains one of the major concerns impacting human life and environment, incurring business losses and jeopardizing organizational reputation.

Generally speaking, guidance for the offshore area is still evolving. The methodology adopted was to conduct a apii assessment for a typical bid to arrive at the sound cost estimate for the fire protection systems. Subsequently, frequency analysis was conducted using parts count methodology 2fg cumulate the frequency of fire scenarios.

More emphasis on requirements for providing inherent safety is now required. The basic function of a FPS is to receive hydrocarbons appi the wellhead, process the hydrocarbons, and r The objective of this paper is to demonstrate a practical approach to the cost estimation of fire protection systems during bidding stage using Simplified Risk Assessment SRA methodologies.

A fire 2db blast information group was subsequently established through which a number of important technical notes have been published. Appi a potential gas cloud size is an important issue in the design phase as well as keeping the design pressures inherently lower generally through design to minimise the effects of an explosion and fire is a key component on an FPSO facility Relevant publications ISO Offshore Structures – General requirements ISO Specific requirements for offshore structures – Part 3: Some guidance from onshore petrochemical guidelines existed but this was not always appropriate for offshore applications.

The performance standard required for these elements and systems should be clear to encapsulate not just the blast wall capacity, but the connections to the primary structure and the response of the primary structure, and be subject to scrutiny associated with the verification scheme for the installation. This publication serves as a guide for those who are concerned with the design and construction of new platforms and for the relocation of existing platforms used for the drilling, development, and storage of hyd Proceedings of an international conference Subsea Controls and Data Acquisition ‘ Structural strengthening of offshore topsides structures apj part of explosion risk reduction methods, The Steel Construction Institute, HSE rr Even if confinement is reduced, high levels of congestion can actually create confinement and enhance the explosion experienced by the surrounding plant and structure.

Ageing assessments tp confirm that structural arrangements are still appropriate for inventory levels that exist on the installation. This method is often described as simple because of the simplicity of the idealisation and the fact you can obtain a response time history using a spreadsheet hence conducting parametric studies which are useful for screening different pressure time histories.