His most important work is the “Corónica moralizada de la orden de N.S.P.S. Agustín en el Peru “, the first volume of which appeared in and the second in. Antonio de la Calancha (–) was a pioneering anthropologist studying the South American natives and a senior Augustinian monk. Bolivia y Perú; nuevas notas históricas y bibliográficas by Gabriel René Moreno( Book); Mariano Alejo Alvarez y el silogismo altoperuano de Fray Antonio.

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To fully reap the benefit of this document, I recommend that you read the Intro before you begin the glossary. The contents will assist you in navigating the glossary and enhance your understanding. The inclusion of herbs, symptomatology and treatments for disease within this glossary is not meant for diagnosis of, nor prescription for treatment of, any medical condition.

This information is included for anthropological and historical study only. Use the Firefox browser with the CoolPreview add on. CoolPreview will give a magnifying glass icon at every link when you put your cursor on the link. Click on the icon and it zntonio open a separate, smaller window with the definition of the term in it. You can either lock the window ans clicking the padlock icon in the top bar of the little window, or move your cursor off the window and it will automatically close.

This is almost as good as mouseovers. Check back for additions. Chroniclers linked in from the body of the glossary may not appear here. If a chronicler’s link in the index below is dead, then I have not yet entered that information. Garcilaso de la Vega. Antonio de Herrera y Tordesillas.

Calancha, Antonio de la 1584-1654

Felipe Guaman Poma de Ayala. Calandha de Cieza de Leon. Pedro Sarmiento de Calacha. Father Joan Antonio Cumis. Father Antonio de la Calancha. All text and graphics are from Wikipedia unless otherwise indicated. Those who observed and studied the people of the Tawantinsuyu did us, modern students of this marvellous shamanic cosmovision, a great service because they were excellent record-keepers and wrote everything down.

Granted, their perception was greatly stained with religious bigotry; nonetheless, without their scholarly efforts, the love of Pachamama and the expansive abilities in consciousness that we have gained with our studies would not have been possible, at least not in this depth. I am busy stitching together a more complete picture from myriad sources within this glossary, as are many other scholars within their own venues.

The dogged mining of information by modern archaeologists has brought, and will continue to bring, to light valuable nuggets to expand and deepen our own understanding. So, let’s find out about Padre Valera who, years after his death, is creating quite the firestorm in archaeological circles. The recommended quipu article and the two bios tell us about an historical soap opera of plagiarism, lies exposed and the possible tipping of a couple of sacred cows.

We begin this biographical sketch with the discovery of an old manuscript in an Italian private library that contains startling revelations about Valera, Guaman Poma and the quipu:. In the spirit of justice Blas Valera broke all the rules-and paid with his life.

Hundreds of years later, his ghost has returned calxncha haunt the official story. But adn it the truth, and will it set fe record straight? This is the tale of Father Blas Valera, the child of a native Incan woman and Spanish father, caught between the ancient world of the Incas and the conquistadors of Spain. Valera, a Jesuit in sixteenth-century Peru, believed in what to his superiors was pure heresy: As punishment for his beliefs he was imprisoned, beaten, xnd, finally, exiled to Spain, where he [supposedly] died at the hands of English pirates in Four centuries later, this Incan chronicler had been all but forgotten, until an Italian anthropologist discovered some startling documents in a private Neapolitan collection.

The documents claimed, among other things, that Valera’s death had been faked by the Jesuits; fe he had returned to Peru; and, intriguingly, while there had taught his followers that the Incas used a secret phonetic quipu — a lz device of the Inca empire-to record history. Far from settling anything, the documents created an international sensation among scholars and led to bitter disputes over how they should be assessed. Are they forgeries, authentic documents, or something in between? Aand genuine, they will radically reform our view of Inca culture and Valera.


Father Joan Antonio Cumis begins drafting the document [an old manuscript recently discovered in a private library], writing a few pages in Latin. He tells of the censorship to which Valera was subjected by the Jesuits and of the destruction of nearly all of his writings, many of which were critical of Jesuit policies in Peru. According re Cumis some of these were saved and later given to a noble of Inka descent by Valera.

From the Archaeology magazine article mentioned above given in full in Appendix C. I am convinced that the news that I am about to put down on record will remain a memorable moment for calanchx Peruvian people, news that was reported to me by the former curaca Mayachac Azuay upon his arrival at Cuzco, when the conquistadores were executing [the Inka leader] Tupac Amaru in This curaca claancha member of the Inka nobility who oversaw the affairs of his lineage group] provided me with a lot of interesting information particularly about the half-breed Father Ed Valera, whom he had known personally.

Fray Antonio de la Calancha

This old and noble curaca knew Blas Valera, who had been a defender and spiritual guide of his people, but the friars contested him because he took sides against the Spaniards who tortured the native Quechua in order to obtain their gold…. Father Valera did not accept those among the priests who had the name of Christ in their mouths but not in their hearts…. The life and work of the priest Blas Valera confirms that truth is stranger than fiction.

Recent research published by the Italian peruvianist Laura Laurencich Minelli gives new light on this enigmatic Jesuit mestizo chronicler considered ‘politically incorrect’ by the official history of Peru. It is taken from a computer translation of the article from Spanish into English.

Antonio de la Calancha

The original text in Spanish can be read here. Adn Catholic, Apostolic and Roman monopolized western knowledge from the Middle Ages to the Renaissance, managing information prior to censorship, punishing with death any deviation in dogma.

This propensity to repress anything that contradicts the official truth ce to the Americas after the antoniio and also affected the chronicles that originated in the New World. The Viceroyalty of Peru passed under the iron subjugation and ideological control managed by the dreaded Inquisition. Laurencich’s presentation was based on the enigmatic Exsul Inmeritus Populo Suo Blas Valeraa bilingual manuscript Latin text and Quechua translation with color illustrations, quipu, pieces of metal, fabrics prehispanic angonio and even a piece of spondyllus shell.

The work was written in the early years of the conquest by the Jesuit znd Blas Valera, tested with paleographical and chemical analyzes by Italian universities, the manuscript is original and corresponds to the dates given in the text. It was sent to Europe in the utmost secrecy in a box that is still preserved in the collection of antiquarian Clara Miccinelli, an Italian lady descended from an old family whose family tree include popes, cardinals, Italian-Spanish nobles and viceroys in America.

The document breaks all the schemes of the official story: Valera also reveals the clandestine activity of a lodge known as The Brotherhood of the Name of Jesus of Cusco, dedicated to exposing the abuses of the clergy and of the conquerors, to claim indigenous-rights after creating a syncretic and “Peruvian” church — and the restoration of the Inca economy following the precepts of the early Christians.

In Cusco, Blas and other Jesuits formed the Brotherhood of the Name amd Jesuswhose activities were uncomfortable for cqlancha colonial government. Valera was then accused of breaking his vows of chastity no details cxlancha of the case and sent to Spain to “regenerate. Here he resumed his contacts with members of the Brotherhood of the Name of Jesus and a group of Spaniards who denied the official version of capturing Atahualpa. According to Blas Valera, and based on testimony from soldiers and others who participated in the capture of Atahualpa, the last Inca was never defeated in battle, but after the poisoning of his principal military chiefs.

Blas Valera wrote that the people of Tawantinsuyu were the true owners of Peru. The son of a Spanish conquistador and an Inca noblewoman, he is recognized primarily for his contributions to Inca history, culture, and society. Although not all scholars agree, many consider Garcilaso’s accounts the most complete and accurate available.

Garcilaso lived with his mother the first ten years atonio his life and learned to speak both Quechua and Spanish. Garcilaso wrote accounts of Inca life, history, and the conquest by the Spanish.


His writings were published as the Comentarios Reales de los Incas translated complete into English in as The Incas. The truth is that Garcilaso himself cites Blas Valera several times in his work, but the Jesuit chachapoyano [Valera was from Chachapoyas] reveals that not only had Garcilaso misquoted and distorted all information related to the quipu as literature by minimizing the quipu to a simple accounting function.

According to Valera, Garcilaso did not understand literary quipu and ignored the existence and interpretation of capac quipus. La Plata, Bolivia, A Spanish Dominican missionary and grammarian, he arrived in Peru ans and founded the convent and city of Yungay. For the purpose of evangelization, he learned the Antonii language spoken along the coast near Lima. Diego was a Spanish Jesuit priest and researcher of the Quechua language during the times of the Viceroyalty of Peru. He arrived to Peru as missionary in and studied the Calanchz language during 25 years in the city of Cusco.

Byhe published in Lima his Grammar and arts of the general language of Perua year later the Vocabulary of the general language of the entire Peruthe first dictionary of the Quechua of Cusco. It was the second most important work about the Quechua language. Medina del Campo, Spain, In Aprilhe was sent to Lima, Peru, where the Jesuits had been established in the proceeding year. He left Spain with several of the Jesuit brethren at age thirty-two inlanding at Carthagena, Panama, then journeyed through 18 leagues of tropical forest.

Here he enjoyed the beauties of the glorious scenery, the novel sights at every turn, and was interested in the clever antics of troops of monkeys. From Panama he embarked for Peru in calanch of his missionary work. He expected, as professed by the philosophers that he had studied, an unbearable intense heat in crossing the equator, but found it to be so cool in March that he laughed at Aristotle and his philosophy.

On his arrival at Lima, he was ordered to cross the Andes, apparently to join the Viceroy in the interior. Acosta was one of the earliest people to give a detailed description of altitude sickness, a variety of which is referred to as Acosta’s disease.

He also mentions an attack of snow blindness and the way in which an Indian woman cured him. The principal seat of the Jesuits was at that time in the little town of Juli, near the western shores of Lake Titicaca. Here a college was formed, the languages of the natives were studied, and eventually a printing press was established. Acosta probably resided at Juli during much of his stay in Peru. It was here, in cqlancha likelihood, that he observed the famous comet offrom November 1 to December 8, which extended like a fiery plume from the horizon nearly to the zenith.

Here, too, he devoted much of his time to the preparation of several learned works, which he later took back to Spain in manuscript, including the first two books of the Natural History of the Indies.

InSir Francis Drake was on the coast, and the Viceroy dispatched a fleet, partly to chase the English pirate and partly to explore and survey the Strait of Magellan.

Acosta had conversations with the pilot of Sarmiento’s fleet, and was allowed to inspect his chart [pilots of this era were notoriously secretive about their charts], thus obtaining much hydrographic information, and particulars respecting the tides in the straits. His official duties obliged him to investigate personally a very extensive range of territory so that he acquired a antnoio knowledge of the vast province and of its aboriginal inhabitants. At the session of the Third Council of Lima, Father Acosta played a very important part and was its historian.

He delivered an eloquent and learned oration lla its last sitting on October 18, It is composed of several chronicles, nautical treatises, calanccha other manuals, as well as extensive cartography. Nor is it a history whose underlying objective was to understand and evaluate events, rather it is fundamentally descriptive, leaving personal judgments pa the side, retelling the events in which the Castilians were the main actors.

Lucanas, Ayacucho Peru, ca.